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Cortical plasticity is thought to be important for the establishment, consolidation, and retrieval of permanent memory. Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a cellular mechanism of learning and memory, requires the activation of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. In particular, it has been suggested that NR2A-containing NMDA receptors are(More)
Trace fear memory requires the activity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and is sensitive to attention-distracting stimuli. Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of mental retardation with many patients exhibiting attention deficits. Previous studies in fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) knock-out (KO) mice, a mouse model for fragile X,(More)
Unraveling the mechanisms by which the molecular manipulation of genes of interest enhances cognitive function is important to establish genetic therapies for cognitive disorders. Although CREB is thought to positively regulate formation of long-term memory (LTM), gain-of-function effects of CREB remain poorly understood, especially at the behavioral level.(More)
Transgenic overexpression of NMDA NR2B receptors in forebrain regions increased behavioral responses to persistent inflammatory pain. However, it is not known whether inflammation leads to the upregulation of NR2B receptors in these regions. Here, we show that peripheral inflammation increased the expression of NMDA NR2B receptors and NR2B receptor-mediated(More)
Learning and memory are fundamental brain functions affected by dietary and environmental factors. Here, we show that increasing brain magnesium using a newly developed magnesium compound (magnesium-L-threonate, MgT) leads to the enhancement of learning abilities, working memory, and short- and long-term memory in rats. The pattern completion ability was(More)
Different kainate receptor (KAR) subtypes contribute to the regulation of both excitatory and inhibitory transmission. However, no study has reported a role for KAR subtypes in behavioral responses to persistent pain and fear memory. Here we show that responses to capsaicin or inflammatory pain were significantly reduced in mice lacking glutamate receptor 5(More)
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is thought to be important for the establishment, consolidation and retrieval of permanent memory. In many brain regions, including the hippocampus, it is suggested that long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), the cellular mechanisms for learning and memory, require the activation of glutamate(More)
The fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is an RNA-binding protein that controls translational efficiency and regulates synaptic plasticity. Here, we report that FMRP is involved in dopamine (DA) modulation of synaptic potentiation. AMPA glutamate receptor subtype 1 (GluR1) surface expression and phosphorylation in response to D1 receptor stimulation(More)
Chronic pain can lead to anxiety and anxiety can enhance the sensation of pain. Unfortunately, little is known about the synaptic mechanisms that mediate these re-enforcing interactions. Here we characterized two forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC); a presynaptic form (pre-LTP) that requires kainate receptors and a(More)
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a forebrain structure known for its roles in learning and memory. Recent studies show that painful stimuli activate the prefrontal cortex and that brain chemistry is altered in this area in patients with chronic pain. Components of the CNS that are involved in pain transmission and modulation, from the spinal cord to(More)