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It is well known that estrogen (E2) stimulates expression of progesterone receptors (PRs), thereby inducing responsiveness of several tissues to the actions of progesterone (P). Recent studies have also suggested, however, that biological actions previously ascribed to E2 alone may also be mediated by activation of E2-induced PRs, even independently of(More)
To clarify the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the regulation of the reproductive axis, these experiments evaluated the extent to which reproductive hormone secretions may be compromised in the absence of NPY expression. In NPY knockout (NPY-KO) and wild-type (WT) mice, hormone secretions were analyzed under conditions of basal release, following(More)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) stimulates the release of GnRH in an estrogen (E2)-dependent manner, which is important in generating preovulatory GnRH surges. We tested the hypothesis that E2 up-regulates NPY's actions by stimulating NPY Y1 receptor (Y1r) gene expression through a mechanism mediated by E2's ability to induce progesterone (P) receptors (PRs). In(More)
Clodronate liposome injection is an effective approach to selectively and specifically depleting macrophages. Macrophages play a crucial role in cutaneous wound healing and are associated with excessive scar formation. Use of clodronate liposomes to enhance cutaneous wound healing and reduce scar formation could represent a major advance in wound therapy(More)
  • H Liu, M Xu
  • 1994
The effects of iontophoretic application of H- (acid NS) on the spontaneous discharge of nucleus paragigantocellularis lateralis (PGCL) neurons were studied in brainstem slice in rat with multibarrel microelectrode techniques. Most of the PGCL neurons tested (18/20, 90%) showed an excitatory response to H+ and the response was dose dependent, but none was(More)
  • H Liu, M Xu
  • 1994
We studied the effects of iontophoretic application of L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) and its antagonist DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (AP5) on the spontaneous discharge of the nucleus paragiganto-cellularis lateralis (PGCL) neurons and the influence of AP5 on L-Glu effect in brainstem slice in rat with the multibarrel microelectrode techniques. One hundred(More)
  • H Liu, M Xu
  • 1994
The effects of iontophoretic application of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and its antagonist, bicuculline (BIC) on the spontaneous discharge of paragigantocellularis lateralis (PGCL) neurons and the influence of BIC on the effects of GABA were studied in brainstem slice in rat with multibarrel microelectrode techniques. Both GABA and BIC showed three types(More)
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