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Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multi-functional growth factors that belong to the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) superfamily. The roles of BMPs in embryonic development and cellular functions in postnatal and adult animals have been extensively studied in recent years. Signal transduction studies have revealed that Smad1, 5 and 8 are the(More)
PURPOSE To compare side-by-side the uptake of sorafenib and sunitinib in vitro by human uptake solute carriers of the SLC22A and SLCO families, the transport by and inhibition of efflux ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, and the role of ABCB1 in the plasma pharmacokinetics and brain penetration of these agents. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Uptake of(More)
A global atmospheric model with roughly 50-km horizontal grid spacing is used to simulate the interannual variability of tropical cyclones using observed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) as the lower boundary condition. The model’s convective parameterization is based on a closure for shallow convection, with much of the deep convection allowed to occur on(More)
PURPOSE To examine the enzyme kinetics of gefitinib and erlotinib metabolism by individual cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, and to compare their effects on CYP3A activity, with the aim to better understand mechanisms underlying pharmacokinetic variability and clinical effects. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Enzyme kinetics were examined by incubating gefitinib or(More)
Regulatory sequences recognized by the unique pair of paralogous factors, CTCF and BORIS, have been implicated in epigenetic regulation of imprinting and X chromosome inactivation. Lung cancers exhibit genome-wide demethylation associated with derepression of a specific class of genes encoding cancer-testis (CT) antigens such as NY-ESO-1. CT genes are(More)
Software metrics play an important role in measuring the quality of software. It is desirable to predict the quality of software as early as possible, and hence metrics have to be collected early as well. This raises a number of questions that has not been fully answered. In this paper we discuss, prediction of fault content and try to answer what type of(More)
UNLABELLED Epigenetic alterations are strongly associated with the development of cancer. We conducted a phase I/II trial of combined epigenetic therapy with azacitidine and entinostat, inhibitors of DNA methylation and histone deacetylation, respectively, in extensively pretreated patients with recurrent metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. This therapy(More)
The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) has developed a coupled general circulation model (CM3) for the atmosphere, oceans, land, and sea ice. The goal of CM3 is to address emerging issues in climate change, including aerosol–cloud interactions, chemistry–climate interactions, and coupling between the troposphere and stratosphere. The model is also(More)
Using a comprehensive atmospheric GCM coupled to a slab mixed layer ocean, experiments are performed to study the mechanism by which displacements of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) are forced from the extratropics. The northern extratropics are cooled and the southern extratropics are warmed by an imposed cross-equatorial flux beneath the mixed(More)