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Tillering in rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important agronomic trait for grain production, and also a model system for the study of branching in monocotyledonous plants. Rice tiller is a specialized grain-bearing branch that is formed on the unelongated basal internode and grows independently of the mother stem (culm) by means of its own adventitious roots.(More)
Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) play important roles in the regulation of microtubule function in cells. We describe Arabidopsis thaliana MAP18, which binds to microtubules and inhibits tubulin polymerization in vitro and colocalizes along cortical microtubules as patches of dot-like structures. MAP18 is expressed mostly in the expanding cells. Cells(More)
Genetic and physiological studies have revealed evidences for multiple signaling pathways by which the plastid exerts retrograde control over photosynthesis-associated-nuclear-genes. In this study we have examined the mechanisms of control of transcription by plastid signals, focusing on transcription factors. We have also further addressed the physical(More)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of loss of central vision in the elderly. The formation of drusen, an extracellular, amorphous deposit of material on Bruch's membrane in the macula of the retina, occurs early in the course of the disease. Although some of the molecular components of drusen are known, there is no understanding of the(More)
The phenotype of Wld(S) ("slow Wallerian degeneration") mice demonstrates prolonged survival of injured axons. However, whether the Wld(S) mutation delays degeneration of the neuronal cell body following axonal injury is unclear. We used a retrograde model of axonal transport failure in Wld(S) mice to test whether the mutant Wld(S) protein has any(More)
PURPOSE In the central nervous system (CNS), increased mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is associated with aging and may underlie, contribute to, or increase the susceptibility to neurodegenerative diseases. Because of the focus on the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid as tissue relevant to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), we examined(More)
Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of central vision loss in the elderly and smoking is a primary risk factor associated with the prevalence and incidence of AMD. To better understand the cellular and molecular bases for the association between smoking and AMD, we determined the effects of Benzo(a)Pyrene (B(a)P), a toxic element in(More)
BACKGROUND We have used optic nerve injury as a model to study early signaling events in neuronal tissue following axonal injury. Optic nerve injury results in the selective death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The time course of cell death takes place over a period of days with the earliest detection of RGC death at about 48 hr post injury. We(More)
To investigate whether or not the aging phenotype has increased vulnerability to axonal injury in vivo, we quantitated the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after optic nerve crush. After crush, young animals lost 20% in 3 days and 50% of their RGCs in 7 days; however, old animals lost 40% in 3 days and 70% of their RGCs in 7 days. Our results showed(More)
With age, there is increased mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in the central nervous system (CNS) that may underlie, contribute or increase the susceptibility to certain neurodegenerative diseases. We examined retinas from the eyes of young and old rodents for mtDNA damage and for changes in selected DNA repair enzymes. We found increased levels of(More)