Ming-Yuan Li

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Dilare Adi1
Minawaer Hujiaaihemaiti1
Alidan Aierken1
Jie Wang1
Lei-Qi Wu1
1Dilare Adi
1Minawaer Hujiaaihemaiti
1Alidan Aierken
1Jie Wang
1Lei-Qi Wu
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BACKGROUND Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of various pulmonary diseases via the activation of the unfolded protein response. However, the role of ER stress in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains unclear. The well-known chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) inhibits ER stress signaling. We(More)
This paper uses Markov-switching specifications to create a hybrid model with time-varying loading on each of chartist and fundamentalist approaches. The empirical data include the U.S. dollar exchange rates of four Asian tiger countries' currencies including NTD, SGD, HKD and KOW from 1980 to 2000. Our empirical findings are consistent with the following(More)
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