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Inflammatory mediators have been implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. Here we report the presence of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligand, IP-10, in normal and Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. CXCR3 was detected constitutively on neurons and neuronal processes in various cortical and subcortical regions; IP-10 was observed(More)
Since the Internet consumes a large (and increasing) amount of energy, “green” strategies are desirable to help service providers (SP) operate their networks and provision services more energy efficiently. We focus on green provisioning strategies for optical wavelength-division multiplexing networks. A number of approaches from component layer to network(More)
Rotaviruses (RVs), an important cause of severe diarrhea in children, have been found to recognize sialic acid as receptors for host cell attachment. While a few animal RVs (of P[1], P[2], P[3], and P[7]) are sialidase sensitive, human RVs and the majority of animal RVs are sialidase insensitive. In this study, we demonstrated that the surface spike protein(More)
In C. elegans, the Notch family member lin-12 has been shown to have a genetic interaction with sel-12, the homologue of the Alzheimer disease-associated presenilin (PS) genes in humans. Mutations in PS genes cause autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease, with age of onset frequently in the 40s. Notch is known as a developmental protein that plays an important(More)
Chemokines belong to an expanding family of cytokines the primary function of which is recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites. Recent evidence has shown their presence in the central nervous system. Because inflammatory responses have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), we studied the expression of CCR3, CCR5, and their(More)
The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) is an endocytic receptor that is a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor family. We report that the LRP ligand, activated alpha(2)-macroglobulin (alpha(2)M*), induces robust calcium influx in cultured primary neurons, but not in nonneuronal LRP-containing cells in the same culture. The(More)
Noroviruses, an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans, recognize the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as host susceptible factors in a strain-specific manner. The crystal structures of the HBGA-binding interfaces of two A/B/H-binding noroviruses, the prototype Norwalk virus (GI.1) and a predominant GII.4 strain (VA387), have been elucidated.(More)
BACKGROUND Invasion and metastasis remain a critical issue in cervical cancer. However, the underlying mechanism of it in cervical cancer remains unclear. The newly discovered protein, TBLR1, plays a crucial role in regulating various key cellular functions. METHODS In this study, western blot, real-time RT-PCR, immunohistochemical staining, 3D(More)
This paper investigates the spectrum fragmentation issue, which undermines the bandwidth efficiency in elastic optical networks. After categorizing the two-dimensional fragmentation problem as the fragmentation and misalignment subproblems, this paper proposes joint routing and spectrum assignment (RSA) algorithms to alleviate the spectral fragmentation in(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, and the fourth leading cause of death in the United States. Its pathological changes include amyloid beta deposits, neurofibrillary tangles and a variety of 'inflammatory' phenomenon such as activation of microglia and astrocytes. The pathological significance of inflammatory(More)