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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with major impairments in insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) gene expression and signaling in the brain. These abnormalities increase with severity of dementia, and are associated with deficiencies in energy metabolism and acetylcholine homeostasis. The co-existence of brain insulin/IGF deficiency and(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with brain insulin resistance and insulin deficiency, whereas Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with peripheral insulin resistance. This study assesses the degree to which T2DM causes AD-type neurodegeneration. In a C57BL/6 mouse model of obesity and T2DM, we characterized the histopathology, gene(More)
Growing evidence supports the concept that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is fundamentally a metabolic disease with molecular and biochemical features that correspond with diabetes mellitus and other peripheral insulin resistance disorders. Brain insulin/IGF resistance and its consequences can readily account for most of the structural and functional(More)
Cerebellar hypoplasia in experimental fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is associated with impaired insulin-stimulated survival signaling. In vitro studies demonstrated that ethanol inhibition of neuronal survival is mediated by apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Since insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) regulate energy metabolism, and ethanol(More)
Obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can be complicated by cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration. Experimentally, high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity with T2DM causes mild neurodegeneration with brain insulin resistance. Since ceramides are neurotoxic, cause insulin resistance, and are increased in T2DM, we(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic alcohol feeding of adult Long Evans rats causes major central nervous system abnormalities that link neuronal loss and impaired acetylcholine homeostasis to ethanol inhibition of insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling and increased oxidative stress. OBJECTIVES We now characterize the integrity of insulin and IGF(More)
Cerebellar hypoplasia in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is associated with inhibition of insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling in the brain. Aspartyl (asparaginyl)-beta-hydroxylase (AAH) is a mediator of neuronal motility, and stimulated by insulin and IGF activation of PI3 kinase-Akt, or inhibition of GSK-3beta. Since ethanol(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Chronic ethanol consumption in the Long-Evans (LE) rat has been associated with hepatic p53 activation, and inhibition of the insulin/PI3K/AKT signal transduction cascade due to increased expression of PTEN. We hypothesize that p53 activation and altered insulin signaling may influence the susceptibility of rats to ethanol-induced liver(More)
Regulation of the process of neuronal death plays a central role both during development of the CNS and in adult brain. The transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) plays a critical role in neuronal survival. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) mediates neurotoxic effects by phosphorylating and inhibiting MEF2. How Cdk5-dependent phosphorylation(More)
Obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are associated with cognitive impairment, brain insulin resistance, and neurodegeneration. Recent studies linked these effects to increased pro-ceramide gene expression in liver and increased ceramide levels in serum. Since ceramides are neurotoxic and cause insulin(More)