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A well defined cost function is crucial to steganography under the scenario of minimizing embedding distortion. In this paper, we present a new cost function for spatial image steganography. The proposed cost function is designed by using a high-pass filter to locate the less predictable parts in an image, and then using two low-pass filters to make the low(More)
BACKGROUND Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important gastrointestinal protists in humans and animals worldwide. In China, bovine cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are of increasing concern because cattle are important reservoirs of these parasites, which have become potential threats to public health and to large numbers of cattle in recent(More)
Lead is a well-known toxin in the environment that causes severe damage to the nervous system. Gastrodin is the main bioactive component of Tian ma ( GASTRODIA ELATA Bl.), which is a traditional herbal medicine widely used in eastern Asia. Increasing lines of evidence show that gastrodin has diverse effects, especially neuroprotective effects. In the(More)
Recently, we reported the discovery of three novel coronaviruses, bulbul coronavirus HKU11, thrush coronavirus HKU12, and munia coronavirus HKU13, which were identified as representatives of a novel genus, Deltacoronavirus, in the subfamily Coronavirinae. In this territory-wide molecular epidemiology study involving 3,137 mammals and 3,298 birds, we(More)
Ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone, is mainly produced by the stomach and released into the circulation. Ghrelin receptors (growth hormone secretagogue receptors) are expressed throughout the brain, including the hippocampus. The activation of ghrelin receptors facilitates high-frequency stimulation (HFS)-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in vitro, and also(More)
BACKGROUND The growing applications of nanotechnologic products, such as quantum dots (QDs), increase the likelihood of exposure. Furthermore, their accumulation in the bioenvironment and retention in cells and tissues are arousing increasing worries about the potentially harmful side effects of these nanotechnologic products. Previous studies concerning QD(More)
Relating the embedding cost in a distortion function to statistical detectability is an open vital problem in modern steganography. In this paper, we take one step forward by formulating the process of cost assignment into two phases: 1) determining a priority profile and 2) specifying a cost-value distribution. We analytically show that the cost-value(More)