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A well defined cost function is crucial to steganography under the scenario of minimizing embedding distortion. In this paper, we present a new cost function for spatial image steganography. The proposed cost function is designed by using a high-pass filter to locate the less predictable parts in an image, and then using two low-pass filters to make the low(More)
Polycomb group proteins Bmi-1 and Ring1B are core subunits of the PRC1 complex, which plays important roles in the regulation of Hox gene expression, X-chromosome inactivation, tumorigenesis, and stem cell self-renewal. The RING finger protein Ring1B is an E3 ligase that participates in the ubiquitination of lysine 119 of histone H2A, and the binding of(More)
The worldwide emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis threatens to make this disease incurable. Drug resistance mechanisms are only partially understood, and whether the current understanding of the genetic basis of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis is sufficiently comprehensive remains unclear. Here we(More)
The simulation method plays an important role in the investigation of the intrabody communication (IBC). Due to the problems of the transfer function and the corresponding parameters, only the simulation of the galvanic coupling IBC along the arm has been achieved at present. In this paper, a method for the mathematical simulation of the galvanic coupling(More)
Twelve complete genomes of three novel coronaviruses-bat coronavirus HKU4 (bat-CoV HKU4), bat-CoV HKU5 (putative group 2c), and bat-CoV HKU9 (putative group 2d)-were sequenced. Comparative genome analysis showed that the various open reading frames (ORFs) of the genomes of the three coronaviruses had significantly higher amino acid identities to those of(More)
Since April 2010, a severe outbreak of duck viral infection, with egg drop, feed uptake decline and ovary-oviduct disease, has spread around the major duck-producing regions in China. A new virus, named BYD virus, was isolated in different areas, and a similar disease was reproduced in healthy egg-producing ducks, infecting with the isolated virus. The(More)
We describe the discovery and isolation of a paramyxovirus, feline morbillivirus (FmoPV), from domestic cat (Felis catus). FmoPV RNA was detected in 56 (12.3%) of 457 stray cats (53 urine, four rectal swabs, and one blood sample) by RT-PCR. Complete genome sequencing of three FmoPV strains showed genome sizes of 16,050 bases, the largest among(More)
Acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACDs) are a family of flavoenzymes that metabolize fatty acids and some amino acids. Of nine known ACDs, glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCD) is unique: in addition to the alpha,beta-dehydrogenation reaction, common to all ACDs, GCD catalyzes decarboxylation of glutaryl-CoA to produce CO(2) and crotonyl-CoA. Crystal structures of GCD(More)
Most of the recently proposed steganographic schemes are based on minimizing an additive distortion function defined as the sum of embedding costs for individual pixels. In such an approach, mutual embedding impacts are often ignored. In this paper, we present an approach that can exploit the interactions among embedding changes in order to reduce the risk(More)
Autophagy is involved in the replication of viruses, especially those that perform RNA assembly on the surface of cytoplasmic membrane in host cells. However, little is known about the regulatory role of autophagy in influenza A virus replication. Using fluorescence and electron microscopy, we observed that autophagosomes can be induced and identified upon(More)