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Thrombospondin (TSP) 2, and its close relative TSP1, are extracellular proteins whose functions are complex, poorly understood, and controversial. In an attempt to determine the function of TSP2, we disrupted the Thbs2 gene by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells, and generated TSP2-null mice by blastocyst injection and appropriate breeding of(More)
Cytokines are intimately involved with the innate and adaptive immune response to bacterial infections. This study was designed to determine the expression of inflammatory cytokines in children by the severity of Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus [GAS]) infections. The study population consisted of 16 invasive, 20 noninvasive, and 24 pharyngeal(More)
OBJECTIVES Angiogenesis is one of the most critical events in the wound healing process. Any increase in angiogenesis could result in more rapid and complete healing. A recent study found that enamel matrix derivative (EMD) could accelerate early periodontal wound healing. We wanted to clarify whether EMD caused an angiogenic effect and, thus, possibly(More)
Previous studies show that isogenic mutants deficient in streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SPE B) cause less mortality and skin tissue damage than wild-type strains of Streptococcus pyogenes when inoculated into mice via an air pouch. In this study, the growth and dissemination of bacteria, pathologic changes in various organs, and their correlation with(More)
EphrinB2 and EphB4, its cognate receptor, are important in the vascular development of the mouse embryo. Their roles in human inflammatory angiogenesis, however, are not well understood. By examining hyperinflammatory lesions, we saw that ephrinB2 was predominantly expressed in macrophage-like cells and EphB4 in small venules. Because macrophages usually(More)
The oligopeptide permease (Opp) of group A streptococci (GAS) is a membrane-associated protein and belongs to the ATP-binding cassette transporter family. It is encoded by a polycistronic operon containing oppA, oppB, oppC, oppD, and oppF. The biological function of these genes in GAS is poorly understood. In order to understand more about the effects of(More)
Streptopain is a cysteine protease expressed by Streptococcus pyogenes. To study the maturation mechanism of streptopain, wild-type and Q186N, C192S, H340R, N356D and W357A mutant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Proteolytic analyses showed that the maturation of prostreptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B zymogen (pro-SPE(More)
BACKGROUND An abundance of microvessels is the major phenotype of pyogenic granuloma, which has been considered a hormone-related lesion based on clinical observations. Although angiogenic factors and inflammatory cytokines have been implied to play roles in the pathogenesis of pyogenic granuloma, their links to female steroid hormones still remain to be(More)
EphrinB2 and EphB4, its cognate receptor , are important in the vascular development of the mouse embryo. Their roles in human inflammatory angiogenesis, however , are not well understood. By examining hyperinflammatory lesions, we saw that ephrinB2 was predominantly expressed in macrophage-like cells and EphB4 in small venules. Because macro-phages usually(More)
A total of 242 isolates were recovered from 76 patients with invasive diseases, 89 with scarlet fever, and 77 with pharyngitis. The most frequent emm types were types 12 (43.4%), 4 (18.2%), and 1 (16.9%). emm12 reemerged in 2005 and peaked in 2007. emm11 was recovered only from patients with invasive disease.