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Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are dominant seed cell sources for bone regeneration. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) initiate cartilage and bone formation in a sequential cascade. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an essential coordinator of extracel-lular matrix remodeling, angiogenesis and bone formation. In the present(More)
Horner syndrome (HS) results from the interruption of sympathic pathway, and the patients have a group of signs including miosis, ptosis, enophthalmos, and anhydrosis. While HS is mainly caused by cervical sympathetic nerve injury such as sympathetic chain tumor, we report here a HS case caused by a thoracolumbar arachnoid cyst. Imageological examination(More)
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