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Voltage-gated channels are normally opened by depolarization and closed by repolarization of the membrane. Despite sharing significant sequence homology with voltage-gated K(+) channels, the gating of hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic-nucleotide-gated (HCN) pacemaker channels has the opposite dependence on membrane potential: hyperpolarization opens,(More)
MOTIVATION Oligonucleotide microarrays allow genotyping of thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in parallel. Recently, this technology has been applied to loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) analysis of paired normal and tumor samples. However, methods and software for analyzing such data are not fully developed. RESULT Here, we report automated(More)
Major efforts are underway to systematically define the somatic and germline genetic variations causally associated with disease. Genome-wide genetic analysis of actual clinical samples is, however, limited by the paucity of genomic DNA available. Here we have tested the fidelity and genome representation of phi29 polymerase-based genome amplification(More)
Most state-of-the-art action feature extractors involve differential operators, which act as highpass filters and tend to attenuate low frequency action information. This attenuation introduces bias to the resulting features and generates ill-conditioned feature matrices. The Gaussian Pyramid has been used as a feature enhancing technique that encodes(More)
Hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels contribute to pacemaking activity in specialized neurons and cardiac myocytes. HCN channels have a structure similar to voltage-gated K(+) channels but have a much larger putative S4 transmembrane domain and open in response to membrane hyperpolarization instead of depolarization. As an(More)
Automatically recognizing a large number of action categories from videos is of significant importance for video understanding. Most existing works focused on the design of more discriminative feature representation , and have achieved promising results when the positive samples are enough. However, very limited efforts were spent on recognizing a novel(More)
BACKGROUND Eukaryotic aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs, EC 1.2.1), which oxidize aldehydes into carboxylic acids, have been classified into more than 20 families. In mammals, Family 2 ALDHs detoxify acetaldehyde. It has been hypothesized that plant Family 2 ALDHs oxidize acetaldehyde generated via ethanolic fermentation, producing acetate for acetyl-CoA(More)
Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosomal regions bearing tumor suppressors is a key event in the evolution of epithelial and mesenchymal tumors. Identification of these regions usually relies on genotyping tumor and counterpart normal DNA and noting regions where heterozygous alleles in the normal DNA become homozygous in the tumor. However, paired(More)
Rats, like humans, are susceptible to the reinforcing effects of reward-related stimuli presented within a compound stimulus array, putatively analogous to the so-called near-miss effect. We have previously demonstrated using a rodent slot machine task (rSMT) that the reward expectancy these stimuli elicit is critically mediated by the dopamine D4 receptor.(More)
This research investigates whether information technologies, such as automated question answering (QA), can add interactivity into a multimedia-based e-learning system, as well as how this type of virtual interaction affects the effectiveness of e-learning. Based on a review of multiple learning theories and technologies, an exploratory model for studying(More)