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A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five(More)
The relationship between symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and serum levels of pregnenolone (Pe), pregnenolone sulfate (PS), 5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione (5 alpha-DHP), 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha- pregnan-20-one (5 alpha-THP), LH, 17 beta-estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P) was investigated during 2 consecutive menstrual cycles in 12 patients using daily(More)
Arabidopsis abscisic acid (ABA)-insensitive abi4 mutants have pleiotropic defects in seed development, including decreased sensitivity to ABA inhibition of germination and altered seed-specific gene expression. This phenotype is consistent with a role for ABI4 in regulating seed responses to ABA and/or seed-specific signals. We isolated the ABI4 gene by(More)
Embryogenesis in plants is a unique process in the sense that it can be initiated from a wide range of cells other than the zygote. Upon stress, microspores or young pollen grains can be switched from their normal pollen development towards an embryogenic pathway, a process called androgenesis. Androgenesis represents an important tool for research in plant(More)
The espins are actin-binding and -bundling proteins localized to parallel actin bundles. The 837-amino-acid "espin" of Sertoli cell-spermatid junctions (ectoplasmic specializations) and the 253-amino-acid "small espin" of brush border microvilli are splice isoforms that share a C-terminal 116-amino-acid actin-bundling module but contain different N termini.(More)
The slow Wallerian degeneration protein (Wld(S)), a fusion protein incorporating full-length nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 1 (Nmnat1), delays axon degeneration caused by injury, toxins and genetic mutation. Nmnat1 overexpression is reported to protect axons in vitro, but its effect in vivo and its potency remain unclear. We generated(More)
The identification and epitope mapping of broadly neutralizing anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibodies (Abs) is important for vaccine design, but, despite much effort, very few such Abs have been forthcoming. Only one broadly neutralizing anti-gp41 monoclonal Ab (MAb), 2F5, has been described. Here we report on two MAbs that recognize a(More)
In humans the glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes encode four classes of proteins (GST) important in the detoxification of reactive electrophiles. Recently, a gene deletion polymorphism was discovered within the GST class theta locus that leads to a functional deficiency in GST theta activity within circulating red blood cells. In this study we have(More)
Light signals perceived by photoreceptors are transduced to negatively regulate COP1, a key repressor of photomorphogenic development. To identify genes involved in light inactivation of COP1, a genetic screen was employed to identify extragenic modifier mutations of a temperature-sensitive cop1 allele. One suppressor mutation isolated also exhibited a(More)