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Retinal bipolar cells are essential to the transmission of light information. Although bipolar cell dysfunction can result in blindness, little is known about the factors required for bipolar cell development and functional maturation. The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor Bhlhb4 was found to be expressed in rod bipolar cells (RB).(More)
The origin of the mammalian lymphatic vasculature has been debated for more than 100 years. Whether lymphatic endothelial cells have a single or dual, venous or mesenchymal origin remains controversial. To resolve this debate, we performed Cre/loxP-based lineage-tracing studies using mouse strains expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the Tie2,(More)
Wireless sensor networks have often been used to monitor and report the locations of moving objects. Since sensors can also be used for storage, a wireless sensor network can be considered a distributed database, enabling us to update and query the location information of moving objects. Many researchers have studied the problem of how to construct(More)
A k-hop dominating set is a subset of nodes such that each node that is not in the set can be reached within k hops from at least one node in the set. A connected k-hop dominating set can be used for disseminating topology update packets or route request packets, in which the flooding search space is reduced to the set, resulting in significant flooding(More)
A major unsolved question in cortical development is how proliferation, neurogenesis, regional growth, regional identity, and laminar fate specification are coordinated. Here we provide evidence, using loss-of-function and gain-of-function manipulations, that the COUP-TFI orphan nuclear receptor promotes ventral cortical fate, promotes cell cycle exit and(More)
The MapReduce/Hadoop architecture has become very important and effective in cloud systems because many data-intensive applications are usually required to process big data. In such environments, big data is partitioned and stored over several data nodes; thus, the total completion time of a task would be delayed if the maximum access latency among all(More)
—In many applications, it is a basic operation for the sink to periodically collect reports from all sensors. Since the data gathering process usually proceeds for many rounds, it is important to collect these data efficiently, that is, to reduce the energy cost of data transmission. Under such applications, a tree is usually adopted as the routing(More)
BACKGROUND Neurogenin-3 (NEUROG3) is expressed in endocrine progenitor cells and is required for endocrine-cell development in the pancreas and intestine. The NEUROG3 gene (NEUROG3) is therefore a candidate for the cause of a newly discovered autosomal recessive disorder characterized by generalized malabsorption and a paucity of enteroendocrine cells. (More)
Although several lines of evidence have indicated that the activity of SRC-3/AIB1/ACTR/pCIP/RAC3/TRAM1 could be regulated by phosphorylation, an important question remained as to how different signaling pathways can act through limiting concentrations of the same SRC-3 molecule to exert different physiological functions. Herein, we report the successful(More)
Chicken ovalbumin upstream promotor-transcription factor I (COUP-TFI), an orphan member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is highly expressed in the developing nervous systems. In the cerebral cortex of Coup-tfl mutants, cortical layer IV was absent due to excessive cell death, a consequence of the failure of thalamocortical projections. Moreover,(More)