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In this study, we investigated the signaling pathway involved in IL-6 production caused by peptidoglycan (PGN), a cell wall component of the Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus, in RAW 264.7 macrophages. PGN caused concentration- and time-dependent increases in IL-6, PGE(2), and cAMP production. PGN-mediated IL-6 production was inhibited by a(More)
A pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease is accumulation of amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) in senile plaques. Abeta has also been implicated in vascular degeneration in cerebral amyloid angiopathy because of its cytotoxic effects on non-neuronal cells, including cerebral endothelial cells (CECs). We explore the role of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase(More)
In this study, we investigated the signaling pathways involved in bradykinin (BK)-induced NF-kappaB activation and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in human airway epithelial cells (A549). BK caused concentration- and time-dependent increase in COX-2 expression, which was attenuated by a selective B2 BK receptor antagonist (HOE140), a Ras inhibitor(More)
In this study, we investigated the signaling pathway involved in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression caused by peptidoglycan (PGN), a cell wall component of the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, in RAW 264.7 macrophages. PGN caused dose- and time-dependent increases in COX-2 expression, which was attenuated by a Ras inhibitor (manumycin A), a(More)
Inflammation and vascular perturbations are increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Prevailing evidence suggests that valproic acid (VPA), an antiepileptic and mood stabilizer, exhibits not only neuro-protective effects, but also anti-inflammatory effects in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the underlying mechanism(More)
We have demonstrated previously that the core protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) exhibits suppression activity on gene expression and replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Here we further elucidated the suppression mechanism of HCV core protein. We demonstrated that HCV core protein retained the inhibitory effect on HBV gene expression and replication(More)
Ganoderma lucidum has been widely used as a remedy to promote health and longevity in China. The polysaccharide component with a branched (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan moiety from G. lucidum (PS-G) has shown evidence of enhancement of immune responses and of eliciting anti-tumor effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of PS-G on neutrophil viability,(More)
1 The polysaccharide from Ganoderma lucidum (PS-G) has been reported to enhance immune responses and to elicit antitumor effects. In our previous study, we found that PS-G efficiently inhibited spontaneously and Fas-enhanced neutrophil apoptosis when cultured in vitro. Since phagocytosis and chemotaxis play essential roles in host defense mediated by(More)
Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), a newly identified soluble protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, is a receptor for Fas ligand (FasL), LIGHT and TL1A. It has been demonstrated that DcR3 is frequently overexpressed by malignant tumors arising from lung, gastrointestinal tract, neuronal glia and virus-associated leukemia.(More)
1. Inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) is thought to involve in host defence and tissue damage in inflammatory loci. In previous study, we have found that the endonuclease inhibitor aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA) can protect macrophages from cell death induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. This action is through the interruption with signalling pathways for(More)