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The marginal likelihood is commonly used for comparing different evolutionary models in Bayesian phylogenetics and is the central quantity used in computing Bayes Factors for comparing model fit. A popular method for estimating marginal likelihoods, the harmonic mean (HM) method, can be easily computed from the output of a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis(More)
Missing data are a prevailing problem in any type of data analyses. A participant variable is considered missing if the value of the variable (outcome or covariate) for the participant is not observed. In this article, various issues in analyzing studies with missing data are discussed. Particularly, we focus on missing response and/or covariate data for(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether pretreatment risk groups shown to predict time to prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) after treatment at a single institution retained that ability in a multi-institutional setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS From 1988 to 2002, 7,316 patients treated in the United States at 44 institutions with either surgery (n = 4,946) or(More)
BACKGROUND We investigated whether androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) use is associated with an increased risk of death from cardiovascular causes in patients treated for localized prostate cancer. METHODS From the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor database, data on 3262 patients treated with radical prostatectomy and 1630(More)
CONTEXT Comorbidities may increase the negative effects of specific anticancer treatments such as androgen suppression therapy (AST). OBJECTIVES To compare 6 months of AST and radiation therapy (RT) to RT alone and to assess the interaction between level of comorbidity and all-cause mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS At academic and(More)
A Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain CL-33(T), was isolated from the encrusting pore coral Montipora aequituberculata collected from seawater off the coast of southern Taiwan. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the strain clustered closely with Endozoicomonas elysicola MKT110(T) (96.7 % similarity). The novel strain(More)
BACKGROUND The relationship between prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-defined recurrence and prostate cancer-specific mortality remains unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the hypothesis that a short post-treatment PSA doubling time (PSA-DT) after radiation therapy is a surrogate end point for prostate cancer-specific mortality by analyzing two(More)
PURPOSE We evaluated predictors of prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) after prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure after radical prostatectomy (RP) or radiation therapy (RT). PATIENTS AND METHODS A total of 1,159 men with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with RP (n = 498) or RT (n = 661) developed PSA failure, and they formed the study(More)
BACKGROUND This report evaluated whether biochemical recurrence (BCR) as a time-dependent covariate (t) after radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer was associated with the risk of death and whether salvage therapy with radiotherapy (RT) and/or hormonal therapy (HT) can lessen this risk METHODS This was a retrospective cohort study of 3071 men who(More)