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Our continuing effort of searching bioactive substances from the Formosan soft coral Cladiella australis has led to the isolation of a bioactive substance austrasulfone (1), which possesses significant neuroprotective activities. A straightforward synthesis of 1 was achieved by a two-step reaction sequence. Dihydroaustrasulfone alcohol (3), the synthetic(More)
The EtOAc extract of a Taiwanese soft coral, Caldiella australis, yielded four new eunicellin-based diterpenoids, australins A-D (1-4). The chemical structures of these metabolites were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (including 1D and 2D NMR) analyses and by comparison of their NMR spectral data with those of related metabolites.(More)
The demand for rail transportation in North America is expected to increase significantly in the coming decades. Additional capacity will be required to accommodate the new traffic demand for both passenger and freight services. The majority of the network is single track with passing sidings, which trains use for meets and passes; therefore, allocating(More)
With 3D stacking design, high-performance low-power complex design is practical. However, due to the high design costs and extensive design efforts, 3D technology is not broadly adopted. For 3D stacking designs, most chip failures are due to power supply problems of voltage drop and noisy voltage. A feasible low-cost 3D stacking design method is proposed.(More)
We present an alternative scheme for determining the frequencies of cesium (Cs) atom 6S-8S Doppler-free transitions. With the use of a single electro-optical crystal, we simultaneously narrow the laser linewidth, lock the laser frequency, and resolve a narrow spectrum point by point. The error budget for this scheme is presented, and we prove that the(More)
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