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Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated as an important trigger for Parkinson's disease-like pathogenesis because exposure to environmental mitochondrial toxins leads to Parkinson's(More)
Mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (pink1) or parkin cause autosomal-recessive and some sporadic forms of Parkinson's disease. pink1 acts upstream of parkin in a common genetic pathway to regulate mitochondrial integrity in Drosophila. Mitochondrial morphology is maintained by a dynamic balance between the opposing actions of mitochondrial fusion,(More)
During development of the Drosophila peripheral nervous system, a sensory organ precursor (SOP) cell undergoes rounds of asymmetric divisions to generate four distinct cells of a sensory organ. Numb, a membrane-associated protein, is asymmetrically segregated into one daughter cell during SOP division and acts as an inherited determinant of cell fate. Here,(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) have the capacity to initiate immune responses, but it has been postulated that they may also be involved in inducing peripheral tolerance. To examine the function of DCs in the steady state we devised an antigen delivery system targeting these specialized antigen presenting cells in vivo using a monoclonal antibody to a DC-restricted(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that are between 21 and 25 nucleotides in length and repress gene function through interactions with target mRNAs. The genomes of metazoans encode on the order of several hundred miRNAs, but the processes they regulate have been defined for only two in C. elegans. We searched for new inhibitors of apoptotic cell(More)
We performed a genome-wide association study of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) by genotyping 1,077 individuals with ESCC and 1,733 control subjects of Chinese Han descent. We selected 18 promising SNPs for replication in an additional 7,673 cases of ESCC and 11,013 control subjects of Chinese Han descent and 303 cases of ESCC and 537 control(More)
The bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae injects effector proteins into host cells through a type III protein secretion system to cause disease. The enzymatic activities of most of P. syringae effectors and their targets remain obscure. Here we show that the type III effector HopU1 is a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase (ADP-RT). HopU1 suppresses plant(More)
One proposed strategy for controlling the transmission of insect-borne pathogens uses a drive mechanism to ensure the rapid spread of transgenes conferring disease refractoriness throughout wild populations. Here, we report the creation of maternal-effect selfish genetic elements in Drosophila that drive population replacement and are resistant to(More)
Caspase family proteases play important roles in the regulation of apoptotic cell death. Initiator caspases are activated in response to death stimuli, and they transduce and amplify these signals by cleaving and thereby activating effector caspases. In Drosophila, the initiator caspase Nc (previously Dronc) cleaves and activates two short-prodomain(More)
Achieving proper organ size requires a balance between proliferation and cell death. For example, at least 40%-60% of cells in the Drosophila wing disc can be lost, yet these discs go on to give rise to normal-looking adult wings as a result of compensatory proliferation. The signals that drive this proliferation are unknown. One intriguing possibility is(More)