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Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which is specific to B lymphocytes, is required for class switch recombination (CSR)--a process mediating isotype switching of immunoglobulin--and somatic hypermutation--the introduction of many point mutations into the immunoglobulin variable region genes. It has been suggested that AID may function as an(More)
Female-specific splicing of Drosophila doublesex (dsx) pre-mRNA is regulated by the products of the transformer (tra) and transformer 2 (tra2) genes. In this paper we show that Tra and Tra2 act by recruiting general splicing factors to a regulatory element located downstream of a female-specific 3' splice site. Remarkably, Tra, Tra2, and members of the(More)
The 40-kb region downstream of the most 3' immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain constant region gene (Calpha) contains a series of transcriptional enhancers speculated to play a role in Ig heavy chain class switch recombination (CSR). To elucidate the function of this putative CSR regulatory region, we generated mice with germline mutations in which one or the(More)
Antibody class switching in activated B cells uses class switch recombination (CSR), which joins activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-dependent double-strand breaks (DSBs) within two large immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus switch (S) regions that lie up to 200 kilobases apart. To test postulated roles of S regions and AID in CSR, we generated(More)
Class-switch recombination (CSR) occurs by an unusual and intriguing mechanism that has not been clearly elucidated as yet. Currently, we know that this mechanism involves recombination between large and highly repetitive switch (S) regions, is targeted by S-region transcription and requires the activity of the newly discovered activation-induced deaminase(More)
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a human genetic disease which is caused by defects in nucleotide excision repair. Since this repair pathway is responsible for removing UV irradiation-induced damage to DNA, XP patients are hypersensitive to sunlight and are prone to develop skin cancer. Based on the underlying genetic defect, the disease can be divided into(More)
Immunoglobulin H class-switch recombination (CSR) occurs between switch regions and requires transcription and activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). Transcription through mammalian switch regions, because of their GC-rich composition, generates stable R-loops, which provide single-stranded DNA substrates for AID. However, we show here that the(More)
The class and effector functions of antibodies are modulated through the process of Ig heavy chain class switch recombination (CSR). CSR occurs between switch (S) regions that lie upstream of the various Ig heavy chain constant region exons. Molecular analyses of S-region functions have been hampered by their large size and repetitive nature. To test(More)
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a human disorder which is characterized by hypersensitivity to sunlight and elevated incidence of skin cancer. The disease is caused by mutations in genes that encode components of the nucleotide excision repair pathway. The gene product of XP complementation group G (XPG) is a structure-specific endonuclease which makes an(More)
The design of immunogens that elicit broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) has been a major obstacle to HIV-1 vaccine development. One approach to assess potential immunogens is to use mice expressing precursors of human bnAbs as vaccination models. The bnAbs of the VRC01-class derive from the IGHV1-2 immunoglobulin heavy chain and neutralize a(More)