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Efficient routing among a set of mobile hosts (also called nodes) is one of the most important functions in ad hoc wireless networks. Routing based on a connected dominating set is a promising approach, where the searching space for a route is reduced to nodes in the set. A set is dominating if all the nodes in the system are either in the set or neighbors(More)
Two starch branching enzyme (SBE) cDNAs were identified in an Arabidopsis seedling hypocotyl library using maize Sbe1 and Sbe2 cDNAs as probes. The two cDNAs have diverged 5′ and 3′ ends, but encode proteins which share 90% identity over an extensive region with 70% identity to maize SBE IIb [12]. Genomic Southern blots suggest that the two cDNAs are the(More)
Stimulation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been shown to have an excitatory influence on dopamine (DA) neurons. We report here that, under nonstimulated conditions, the activity of DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) also covaries, on a subsecond timescale, with the activity of PFC cells. Thus, in 67% of VTA DA neurons recorded in chloral(More)
Systemic exposure to nicotine induces glutamatergic synaptic plasticity on dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), but mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we report that single, systemic exposure in rats to nicotine (0.17 mg/kg free base) increases the ratio of DA neuronal currents mediated by AMPA relative to NMDA receptors (AMPA/NMDA(More)
Cannabinoid CB2 receptors (CB2Rs) have been recently reported to modulate brain dopamine (DA)-related behaviors; however, the cellular mechanisms underlying these actions are unclear. Here we report that CB2Rs are expressed in ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons and functionally modulate DA neuronal excitability and DA-related behavior. In situ(More)
Visual experience scales down excitatory synapses in the superficial layers of visual cortex in a process that provides an in vivo paradigm of homeostatic synaptic scaling. Experience-induced increases in neural activity rapidly upregulates mRNAs of immediate early genes involved in synaptic plasticity, one of which is Arc (activity-regulated cytoskeleton(More)
AIM To retrospectively analyze the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of primary clear cell carcinoma of the liver (PCCCL) and compare the imaging appearances of PCCCL and common type hepatocellular carcinoma (CHCC) to determine whether any differences exist between the two groups. METHODS Twenty cases with(More)
In the current Web 2.0 era, the popularity of Web resources fluctuates ephemerally, based on trends and social interest. As a result, content-based relevance signals are insufficient to meet users' constantly evolving information needs in searching for Web 2.0 items. Incorporating future popularity into ranking is one way to counter this. However,(More)
Recently, data mining over uncertain data streams has attracted a lot of attentions because of the widely existed imprecise data generated from a variety of streaming applications. In this paper, we try to resolve the problem of clustering over uncertain data streams. Facing uncertain tuples with different probability distributions, the clustering algorithm(More)
Ternary content-addressable memories (TCAMs) have gained wide acceptance in the industry for storing and searching patterns in routers. But two important problems block the way to deploy TCAMs as deep package matching engines for network intrusion detection systems (NIDS): long patterns matching and range patterns matching. A novel high speed long patterns(More)