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Efficient routing among a set of mobile hosts (also called nodes) is one of the most important functions in ad hoc wireless networks. Routing based on a connected dominating set is a promising approach, where the searching space for a route is reduced to nodes in the set. A set is dominating if all the nodes in the system are either in the set or neighbors(More)
Systemic exposure to nicotine induces glutamatergic synaptic plasticity on dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), but mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we report that single, systemic exposure in rats to nicotine (0.17 mg/kg free base) increases the ratio of DA neuronal currents mediated by AMPA relative to NMDA receptors (AMPA/NMDA(More)
Two starch branching enzyme (SBE) cDNAs were identified in an Arabidopsis seedling hypocotyl library using maize Sbe1 and Sbe2 cDNAs as probes. The two cDNAs have diverged 5′ and 3′ ends, but encode proteins which share 90% identity over an extensive region with 70% identity to maize SBE IIb [12]. Genomic Southern blots suggest that the two cDNAs are the(More)
Stimulation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been shown to have an excitatory influence on dopamine (DA) neurons. We report here that, under nonstimulated conditions, the activity of DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) also covaries, on a subsecond timescale, with the activity of PFC cells. Thus, in 67% of VTA DA neurons recorded in chloral(More)
Visual experience scales down excitatory synapses in the superficial layers of visual cortex in a process that provides an in vivo paradigm of homeostatic synaptic scaling. Experience-induced increases in neural activity rapidly upregulates mRNAs of immediate early genes involved in synaptic plasticity, one of which is Arc (activity-regulated cytoskeleton(More)
Ternary content-addressable memories (TCAMs) have gained wide acceptance in the industry for storing and searching patterns in routers. But two important problems block the way to deploy TCAMs as deep package matching engines for network intrusion detection systems (NIDS): long patterns matching and range patterns matching. A novel high speed long patterns(More)
Recently, data mining over uncertain data streams has attracted a lot of attentions because of the widely existed imprecise data generated from a variety of streaming applications. In this paper, we try to resolve the problem of clustering over uncertain data streams. Facing uncertain tuples with different probability distributions, the clustering algorithm(More)
Cannabinoid CB2 receptors (CB2Rs) have been recently reported to modulate brain dopamine (DA)-related behaviors; however, the cellular mechanisms underlying these actions are unclear. Here we report that CB2Rs are expressed in ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons and functionally modulate DA neuronal excitability and DA-related behavior. In situ(More)
It was to assess antiangiogenic effect of β-elemene in vitro and in vivo, and it was involved in inhibiting melanoma growth and metastasis, as well as to elucidate its intrinsic mechanism. Inhibitive effect of β-elemene on B16F10 cells was performed by cell proliferation assay. Angiogenesis assays in vitro including rat aortic ring and chick embryo(More)
In mice and in young adult humans, the subventricular zone (SVZ) contains multipotent, dividing astrocytes, some of which, when cultured, produce neurospheres that differentiate into neurons and glia. It is unknown whether the SVZ of very old humans has this capacity. Here, we report that neural stem/progenitor cells can also be cultured from rapid autopsy(More)