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Efficient routing among a set of mobile hosts (also called nodes) is one of the most important functions in ad hoc wireless networks. Routing based on a connected dominating set is a promising approach, where the searching space for a route is reduced to nodes in the set. A set is dominating if all the nodes in the system are either in the set or neighbors(More)
Visual experience scales down excitatory synapses in the superficial layers of visual cortex in a process that provides an in vivo paradigm of homeostatic synaptic scaling. Experience-induced increases in neural activity rapidly upregulates mRNAs of immediate early genes involved in synaptic plasticity, one of which is Arc (activity-regulated cytoskeleton(More)
Systemic exposure to nicotine induces glutamatergic synaptic plasticity on dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), but mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we report that single, systemic exposure in rats to nicotine (0.17 mg/kg free base) increases the ratio of DA neuronal currents mediated by AMPA relative to NMDA receptors (AMPA/NMDA(More)
In the current Web 2.0 era, the popularity of Web resources fluctuates ephemerally, based on trends and social interest. As a result, content-based relevance signals are insufficient to meet users' constantly evolving information needs in searching for Web 2.0 items. Incorporating future popularity into ranking is one way to counter this. However,(More)
The aim of our study was to find a specific imaging (contrast-enhanced ultrasound, CEUS) to detect extracapsular extension and cervical lymph node metastases (ECE-LNM) that associated with BRAF protein expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Preoperative utrasonography (US) or CEUS was performed in the diagnosis of extracapsular extension (ECE) in(More)
To explore the toxic effects of ethanol on axis formation during embryogenesis, zebrafish embryos at different developmental stages were treated with 3% ethanol for 3h. The effects of ethanol exposure appeared to be stage-dependent. The dome stage embryo was most sensible to form posterior split axes upon ethanol exposure. Morphological and histological(More)
The stress-responding protein, GADD45α, plays important roles in cell cycle checkpoint, DNA repair and apoptosis. In our recent study, we demonstrate that GADD45α undergoes a dynamic ubiquitination and degradation in vivo, which process can be blocked by the cytotoxic reagent, arsenite, resulting in GADD45α accumulation to activate JNKs cell death pathway,(More)
Cannabinoid CB2 receptors (CB2Rs) have been recently reported to modulate brain dopamine (DA)-related behaviors; however, the cellular mechanisms underlying these actions are unclear. Here we report that CB2Rs are expressed in ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons and functionally modulate DA neuronal excitability and DA-related behavior. In situ(More)
Stimulation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been shown to have an excitatory influence on dopamine (DA) neurons. We report here that, under nonstimulated conditions, the activity of DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) also covaries, on a subsecond timescale, with the activity of PFC cells. Thus, in 67% of VTA DA neurons recorded in chloral(More)