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Numerous studies have documented that Sp1 expression level were elevated in various human cancers. However, the promoters of many pro-apoptotic genes have been found to contain the Sp1 binding elements and are activated by Sp1 overexpression. To better understand the role and the mechanism of increased Sp1 levels on apoptosis, we used adenovirus to(More)
PURPOSE Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme that degrades tryptophan, is a negative immune regulatory molecule of dendritic cells. IDO-expressing dendritic cells suppress T cell responses and may be immunosuppressive in vivo. We hypothesized that silencing the IDO expression in skin dendritic cells in vivo could elicit antitumor activity in(More)
BACKGROUND Induction of apoptosis by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated as the major factor in the development of multiple diseases. ER stress also appears to be a potentially useful major response to many chemotherapeutic drugs and environmental chemical compounds. A previous study has indicated that one major apoptotic regulator, p53, is(More)
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are well documented to play roles in cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis; however, whether VGCCs regulate the onset and progression of cancer is still under investigation. The VGCC family consists of five members, which are L-type, N-type, T-type, R-type and P/Q type. To date, no holistic approach has been(More)
Ground glass hepatocytes (GGHs) are the historic hallmarks for the hepatocytes in the late and non-replicative stages of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We have identified type I and type II GGHs that contain two mutant types of large HBV surface antigens (HBsAg) with deletions over the pre-S1 and pre-S2 regions, respectively. These pre-S mutant HBVsAg(More)
Expression of mutant proteins or viral infection may interfere with proper protein folding activity in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Several pathways that maintain cellular homeostasis were activated in response to these ER disturbances. Here we investigated which of these ER stress-activated pathways induce COX-2 and potentially oncogenesis. Tunicamycin(More)
Substantial evidence suggests that inflammatory cytokines, immune cells, and angiogenesis are important for endometriosis. In this study, we investigated the role of the sequential events in the development of endometriosis in a mouse model. Uterine tissue was transplanted into the peritoneum of ovariectomized mice and then supplemented with estrogen or(More)
Biolistic DNA delivery is an approach to deliver plasmid to culture cells, plants, or animals. Plasmid DNA is usually transferred through bombardment of DNA-coated particles by highly pressurized gas in various kinds of delivery vehicles. The low pressure gene gun can deliver plasmid at lower pressure. Here, we describe methods of biolistic DNA delivery to(More)
Sterile 20 (ste20) protein is an upstream ser/thr kinase in yeast, and several mammalian Ste20-like (MST) kinases have been identified. This review focuses on the signal transduction, interacting proteins, and potential biological function of MST1, 2, 3, and 4 kinases, since several novel signal pathways of these kinases have been characterized recently.(More)
MST3 is a member of the sterile-20 protein kinase family with a unique preference for manganese ion as a cofactor in vitro; however, its biological function is largely unknown. Suppression of endogenous MST3 by small interference RNA enhanced cellular migration in MCF-7 cells with reduced expression of E-cadherin at the edge of migrating cells. The(More)