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BACKGROUND Induction of apoptosis by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated as the major factor in the development of multiple diseases. ER stress also appears to be a potentially useful major response to many chemotherapeutic drugs and environmental chemical compounds. A previous study has indicated that one major apoptotic regulator, p53, is(More)
PURPOSE Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme that degrades tryptophan, is a negative immune regulatory molecule of dendritic cells. IDO-expressing dendritic cells suppress T cell responses and may be immunosuppressive in vivo. We hypothesized that silencing the IDO expression in skin dendritic cells in vivo could elicit antitumor activity in(More)
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are well documented to play roles in cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis; however, whether VGCCs regulate the onset and progression of cancer is still under investigation. The VGCC family consists of five members, which are L-type, N-type, T-type, R-type and P/Q type. To date, no holistic approach has been(More)
Reactive astrogliosis is a cellular manifestation of neuroinflammation and occurs in response to all forms and severities of the central nervous system (CNS)’s injury and disease. Both astroglial proliferation and antiapoptotic processes are aspects of astrogliosis. However, the underlying mechanism of this response remains poorly understood. In addition,(More)
Sterile 20 (ste20) protein is an upstream ser/thr kinase in yeast, and several mammalian Ste20-like (MST) kinases have been identified. This review focuses on the signal transduction, interacting proteins, and potential biological function of MST1, 2, 3, and 4 kinases, since several novel signal pathways of these kinases have been characterized recently.(More)
Ground glass hepatocytes (GGHs) are the historic hallmarks for the hepatocytes in the late and non-replicative stages of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We have identified type I and type II GGHs that contain two mutant types of large HBV surface antigens (HBsAg) with deletions over the pre-S1 and pre-S2 regions, respectively. These pre-S mutant HBVsAg(More)
Herein, we evaluated the anti-cancer effect and molecular mechanisms of a novel betulinic acid (BA) derivative, SYK023, by using two mouse models of lung cancer driven by KrasG12D or EGFRL858R. We found that SYK023 inhibits lung tumor proliferation, without side effects in vivo or cytotoxicity in primary lung cells in vitro. SYK023 triggered endoplasmic(More)
Tumor hypoxia drives metastatic progression, drug resistance, and posttreatment relapses, but how cancer cells adapt and evolve in response to hypoxic stress is not well understood. In this study, we address this question with the discovery that the receptor tyrosine kinase RON translocates into the nucleus of hypoxic cancer cells. In response to hypoxia,(More)
Mammalian Sterile 20-like kinase 3 (Mst3), the physiological functions of which are unknown, is a member of the germinal center kinase-III family. It contains a conserved kinase domain at its NH(2) terminus, whereas there is a regulatory domain at its COOH terminus. In this study we demonstrate that endogenous Mst3 is specifically cleaved when Jurkat cells(More)
MST3 is a member of the sterile-20 protein kinase family with a unique preference for manganese ion as a cofactor in vitro; however, its biological function is largely unknown. Suppression of endogenous MST3 by small interference RNA enhanced cellular migration in MCF-7 cells with reduced expression of E-cadherin at the edge of migrating cells. The(More)