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Rhythmic signals from physiological systems usually have memory and long-term correlation. They can be modeled as fractional Brownian motion or fractional Gaussian noise depending on if the signals are derived from cumulative effects of nerves and muscles. That is, they can be treated as signals with fractional dimension, and the value of its fractal(More)
Co-activations of agonist and antagonist muscles are believed to be present in voluntary limb movement. Recent studies indicate that such co-activations are either synergic or dyssynergic. The aims of this paper are to (1) develop a novel method that can extract both the intensity and frequency information from the recordings of the surface electromyograms(More)
In reflex and volitional actions, co-activations of agonist and antagonist muscles are believed to be present. Recent studies indicate that such co-activations can be either synergic or dyssynergic. The aim of this paper is to investigate if the co-activations of biceps brachii, brachialis, and triceps brachii during volitional elbow flexion are in the(More)
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