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With the development of brain-computer interface (BCI) technology, researchers are now attempting to put current BCI techniques into practical application. This paper presents an environmental controller using a BCI technique based on steady-state visual evoked potential. The system is composed of a stimulator, a digital signal processor, and a trainable(More)
This paper presents a brain-computer interface (BCI) that can help users to input phone numbers. The system is based on the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP). Twelve buttons illuminated at different rates were displayed on a computer monitor. The buttons constituted a virtual telephone keypad, representing the ten digits 0-9, BACKSPACE, and(More)
OBJECTIVE To classify the EEG data recorded in mu rhythm-based cursor control experiments with 4 possible choices. METHODS The algorithm included preprocessing, feature extraction, and classification. Two spatial filters, common average reference and common spatial subspace decomposition, were used in preprocessing to improve the signal-to-noise ratio,(More)
The present study investigated whether spinal astrocyte and microglia were activated in Buthus martensi Karch (BmK) venom-induced rat pain-related behaviors. The results showed that glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity indicative astrocyte activation in bilateral spinal cord started to increase by day 3, peaked at day 7 and gradually(More)
The integrated mechanisms of dynamic signaling of sodium channels involved in clinical pain are still not yet clear. In this study, a new rat inflammatory pain model was developed by using the unilateral intraplantar injection of BmK I, a receptor site 3-specific modulator of sodium channels from the venom of scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch (BmK). It was(More)
The inflammatory response is thought to play important roles in tissue healing. The hypothesis of this study was that the inflammatory cytokine, interferon (IFN)-, is produced endogenously following skeletal muscle injury and promotes efficient healing. We show that IFN-is expressed at both mRNA and protein levels in skeletal muscle following injury, and(More)