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Great controversy exists regarding the biologic responses of osteoblasts to X-ray irradiation, and the mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, the biological effects of low-dose radiation on stimulating osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and fracture healing were identified using in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal studies. First,(More)
This paper studies the impact of hardware mismatch (HM) between the base station (BS) and the user equipment (UE) in the downlink (DL) of large-scale antenna systems. Analytical expressions to predict the achievable rates are derived for different precoding methods, i.e., matched filter (MF) and regularized zero-forcing (RZF), using large system analysis(More)
This paper focuses on the downlink system capacity in distributed antenna systems (DAS). Due to the complexity of actual wireless environments, a composite channel model is established which takes into account three factors, i.e., path loss, lognormal shadowing and Rayleigh fading. Based on the channel model, the probability density function (PDF) of the(More)