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The apical ectodermal ridge (AER) is an essential structure for vertebrate limb development. Wnt3a is expressed during the induction of the chick AER, and misexpression of Wnt3a induces ectopic expression of AER-specific genes in the limb ectoderm. The genes beta-catenin and Lef1 can mimic the effect of Wnt3a, and blocking the intrinsic Lef1 activity(More)
The molecular mechanisms underlying the development of the external genitalia in mammals have been very little examined. Recent gene knockout studies have suggested that the developmental processes of its anlage, the genital tubercle (GT), have much in common with those of limb buds. The Fgf genes have been postulated as regulating several downstream genes(More)
Drosophila Flamingo is a 7-pass transmembrane cadherin that is necessary for dendritic patterning and axon guidance. How it works at the molecular level and whether homologs of Flamingo play similar roles in mammalian neurons or not have been unanswered questions. Here, we performed loss-of-function analysis using an RNAi system and organotypic brain slice(More)
Vertebrate neural development is initiated during gastrulation by the inductive action of the dorsal mesoderm (Spemann's organizer in amphibians) on neighbouring ectoderm, which eventually gives rise to the central nervous system from forebrain to spinal cord. Here we present evidence that bFGF can mimic the organizer action by inducing Xenopus ectoderm(More)
Differentiation of CNS glia is regulated by Notch signaling through neuron-glia interaction. Here, we identified Delta/Notch-like EGF-related receptor (DNER), a neuron-specific transmembrane protein, as a previously unknown ligand of Notch during cellular morphogenesis of Bergmann glia in the mouse cerebellum. DNER binds to Notch1 at cell-cell contacts and(More)
We previously showed that FGF was capable of inducing Xenopus gastrula ectoderm cells in culture to express position-specific neural markers along the anteroposterior axis in a dose-dependent manner. However, conflicting results have been obtained concerning involvement of FGF signaling in the anterior neural induction in vivo using the same(More)
The vertebrate nervous system is initially induced from a section of dorsal ectoderm by signal(s) from the underlying dorsal mesoderm during gastrulation. In an effort to identify the neural inducing factor(s) emanating from the dorsal mesoderm, we have examined the inductive action of various growth factors by applying them to ectoderm cells from Xenopus(More)
The distribution of mitochondria within mature, differentiated neurons is clearly adapted to their regional physiological needs and can be perturbed under various pathological conditions, but the function of mitochondria in developing neurons has been less well studied. We have studied mitochondrial distribution within developing mouse cerebellar Purkinje(More)
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) plays a crucial role in synaptic plasticity and motor learning in the cerebellum. We have studied activity-dependent changes in mGluR1 function in mouse cultured Purkinje neurons. Depolarizing stimulation potentiated Ca2+ and current responses to an mGluR1 agonist for several hours in the cultured Purkinje neurons.(More)
DNER is a transmembrane protein carrying extracellular EGF repeats and is strongly expressed in Purkinje cells (PCs) in the cerebellum. Current study indicated that DNER functions as a new Notch ligand and mediates the functional communication via cell-cell interaction. By producing and analyzing knockout mice lacking DNER, we demonstrate its essential(More)