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Receptors for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) seem to have a critical role in synaptic plasticity. NMDA antagonists (such as AP5) prevent induction of long-term potentiation, an activity-dependent enhancement of synaptic efficacy mediated by neural mechanisms that might also underlie learning and memory. They also attenuate memory formation in several(More)
The fear-potentiated startle paradigm, in which the amplitude of the startle reflex is enhanced in the presence of a stimulus previously paired with footshock, was used to measure aversive conditioning after intra-amygdala infusion of the competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist DL-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5). Infusion of 2.5(More)
Current research suggests there are genetic differences in susceptibility to drug abuse. One way to examine this relationship is to study inbred strains, such as Lewis (LEW) and Fischer 344 (F344) rats, that show differential biochemical and behavioral effects in response to psychoactive drugs. In the present study several behavioral effects of cocaine were(More)
Intracerebroventricular infusion of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) (0.1-1.0 micrograms) produced a pronounced, dose-dependent enhancement of the acoustic startle reflex in rats. This excitatory effect began about 20-30 min after infusion, grew steadily over the 2 hr test period, and lasted at least 6 hr. Higher doses of CRF (10 micrograms) often(More)
Data derived from in vitro preparations indicate that NMDA receptors play a critical role in synaptic plasticity in the CNS. More recently, in vivo pharmacological manipulations have suggested that an NMDA-dependent process may be involved in specific forms of behavioral plasticity. All of the work thus far has focused on the possible role of NMDA receptors(More)
Intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) was previously found to produce a long-lasting, dose-dependent (0.1-1.0 microgram) increase in the amplitude of the acoustic startle reflex. The present study sought to determine where in the CNS CRF acts to increase startle. Intracisternal infusion of CRF (0.1-1.0 microgram)(More)
Lewis and Fischer inbred rat strains differ in behavioral and biochemical responses to psychoactive drugs: Lewis rats show greater behavioral responses to psychoactive drugs than Fischer rats and they fail to show biochemical adaptations in the mesolimbic dopamine system after chronic drug exposure, in contrast to Fischer and outbred rats. This suggests(More)
Previous work has shown that lesions of the central nucleus of the amygdala block fear-potentiated acoustic startle and that electrical simulation of the central nucleus enhances acoustic startle in rats. In the present study, the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin was used to identify and delineate the course of a direct projection from(More)
The present study is part of an ongoing series of experiments aimed at delineation of the neural pathways that mediate fear-potentiated startle, a model of conditioned fear in which the acoustic startle reflex is enhanced when elicited in the presence of a light previously paired with shock. A number of cortical areas that might be involved in relaying(More)
That stress enhances the behavioral effects of cocaine is well-documented in adult rats, but whether early life stress endures into adulthood to affect responsivity to cocaine is less clear. We now report that neonatal isolation stress (1 h per day isolation on postnatal days 2-9) enhances acquisition of cocaine self-administration in adult rats. This(More)