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The ideas and findings in this report should not be construed as an official DoD position. It is published in the interest of scientific and technical information exchange. Permission to reproduce this document and to prepare derivative works from this document for internal use is granted, provided the copyright and " No Warranty " statements are included(More)
BACKGROUND Tumor microenvironment of metastasis (TMEM), consisting of direct contact between a macrophage, an endothelial cell, and a tumor cell, has been associated with metastasis in both rodent mammary tumors and human breast cancer. We prospectively examined the association between TMEM score and risk of distant metastasis and compared risk associated(More)
OBJECTIVE We used a nested case-control design within a large, multi-center cohort of women who underwent a biopsy for benign breast disease (BBD) to assess the association of broad histologic groupings and specific histologic entities with risk of breast cancer. METHODS Cases were all women who had a biopsy for BBD and who subsequently developed breast(More)
Modifiable factors, including diet, might alter breast cancer risk. We used the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification trial to test the effect of the intervention on risk of benign proliferative breast disease, a condition associated with increased risk of, and considered to be on the pathway to, invasive breast cancer. The Women's Health(More)
OBJECTIVE Excess weight has been associated with numerous psychological problems, including depression and anxiety. This study examined the impact of intentional weight loss on the psychological well-being of adults participating in three clinical weight loss interventions. METHODS This population consisted of 588 overweight or obese individuals(More)
BACKGROUND Hispanics are a heterogeneous group of individuals with a variation in dietary habits that is reflective of their cultural heritage and country of origin. It is important to identify differences in their dietary habits because it has been well established that nutrition contributes substantially to the burden of preventable diseases and early(More)
Women with benign proliferative breast disease are at increased risk of subsequent breast cancer. Estrogens and progesterone exert proliferative effects on mammary epithelium, and combined hormone replacement therapy has been associated with increased breast cancer risk. We tested the effect of conjugated equine estrogen plus progestin on the risk of benign(More)
Experimental evidence provides strong support for anti-carcinogenic effects of calcium and vitamin D with respect to breast cancer. Observational epidemiologic data also provide some support for inverse associations with risk. We tested the effect of calcium plus vitamin D supplementation on risk of benign proliferative breast disease, a condition which is(More)
Multiple population-based HIV prevention strategies from national, state, local, and institutional levels have been implemented in the Bronx, which has one of the highest HIV prevalences in the U.S. We examined changes in antiretroviral therapy (ART) use and associated outcomes between 2007 and 2014 among patients seen at one of >20 outpatient clinics(More)
BACKGROUND Estrogens stimulate proliferation of breast epithelium and may therefore increase the risk of benign proliferative breast disease, a condition that is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. We tested the effect of conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) on risk of benign proliferative breast disease in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI)(More)