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Although Ca(i)(2+) waves in networks of astrocytes in vivo are well documented, propagation in vivo is much more complex than in culture, and there is no consensus concerning the dominant roles of intercellular and extracellular messengers [inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) and adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP)] that mediate Ca(i)(2+) waves. Moreover, to(More)
The process of autophagy involves the formation of autophagosomes, double-membrane structures that encapsulate cytosol. Microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) was the first protein shown to specifically label autophagosomal membranes in mammalian cells, and subsequently EGFP-LC3 has become one of the most widely utilized reporters of autophagy.(More)
A model of ligand-induced intracellular calcium (Ca2+) responses incorporating phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) is developed for the purpose of understanding the mechanisms underlying the observed temporal patterns of intracellular calcium (Ca(i)2+) under sustained agonist stimulation. Some studies have suggested that inhibition of ligand(More)
Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) has been a versatile tool to study transport and reaction kinetics in live cells. Since the fluorescence data generated by fluorescence microscopy are in a relative scale, a wide variety of scalings and normalizations are used in quantitative FRAP analysis. Scaling and normalization are often required to(More)
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