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Electrical stimulation of the retina with extraocular electrodes is a new approach to developing a retinal prosthesis for blind patients. We have evaluated stimulus and electrode configurations for an extraocular retinal prosthesis (ERP). In anesthetized cats, ERP disc electrodes of 1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm diameter were sutured to the sclera over the lateral(More)
TOPIC To review systematically the diagnostic accuracy of various ocular signs for pediatric abusive head trauma (AHT). CLINICAL RELEVANCE Intraocular hemorrhages (IOH), perimacular retinal folds, traumatic retinoschisis and optic nerve sheath hemorrhages have been reported as cardinal signs of AHT. The evidence base supporting the accuracy of this(More)
PURPOSE Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is an uncommon tumor of the corneal and conjunctival epithelium associated with risk of permanent visual impairment. The purposes of this study were to (1) identify and localize potential mediators in tissue from patients with OSSN and (2) culture human dysplastic conjunctival epithelial cells (DCECs) to(More)
PURPOSE To determine the association between ocular sun exposure measured by conjunctival ultraviolet (UV) autofluorescence and myopic refractive error in young adults. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. METHODS setting: Population-based cohort in Western Australia. study population: Total of 1344 mostly white subjects aged 19-22 years in the Western(More)
Peripheral focusing of light by the anterior eye may provide a unifying concept to explain the location and etiology of sun-related eye conditions (ophthalmohelioses). Using a bovine eye model, along with computer-assisted ray-tracing techniques to model limbal focusing, we demonstrated a correlation between the locations of the foci of scattered incident(More)
Pterygium is a common ocular surface disease apparently only observed in humans. Chronic UV exposure is a widely accepted aetiological factor in the pathogenesis of this disease and this concept is supported by epidemiological data, ray tracing models and histopathological changes that share common features with UV damaged skin. The mechanism(s) of(More)
Pterygia are common ocular surface lesions thought to originate from limbal stem cells altered by chronic UV exposure. Traditionally regarded as a degenerative condition, pterygia also display tumor-like features, such as a propensity to invade normal tissue and high recurrence rates following resection, and may coexist with secondary premalignant lesions.(More)
The cells of the various organ systems in humans are subject to mechanical forces to which they must respond. Here the authors review what is known of the ways in which the cells of animals, ranging from the prokaryotic to humans, sense and transduce mechanical forces to respond to such stimuli. In what way this pertains to the eye, especially with respect(More)
Our aim was to examine secondary image formation in the anterior segment caused by peripheral light focusing (PLF) in the human cornea, and in particular the crystalline lens. Non-sequential ray-tracing (OptiCAD) was applied to an anatomically based human eye model, which incorporates a gradient index crystalline lens. For analysis of the limbal effect, we(More)