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1. Extra- and intracellular potentials were recorded from neurons and glia during spreading depression (SD) in cerebral cortex of cats. The glial membrane depolarized during SD and the time course of depolarization was concurrent with the surface DC change of SD. The glial depolarization evoked by 20-Hz repetitive cortical stimulation disappeared during the(More)
In this paper, we presented the 4.0, 2.7, 2.5 mm, width, length, height size biomimetics micro robot system which was inspired by insects. The micro robot system was made from silicon wafer fabricated by micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. The mechanical system of the robot was equipped with small size rotary type actuators, link mechanisms(More)
Intracellular microelectrodes filled with either Lucifer Yellow CH, a highly florescent dye, or horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were used to electrophysiologically characterize and mark cells in the cerebral cortex of cat. Fifty-eight cells, characterized electrophysiologically as glia, were marked with Lucifer Yellow CH. All were identified as protoplasmic(More)
In order to investigate the role of Na+,K(+)-ATPase in the development of neuronal necrosis following cerebral ischemia, ischemia was induced in gerbils by occluding the common carotid artery unilaterally for 10 min. A time-course analysis revealed that significant reductions of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus were(More)
In this paper, we will propose the neural networks integrated circuit (NNIC) which is the driving waveform generator of the 4.0, 2.7, 2.5 mm, width, length, height in size biomimetics microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) microrobot. The microrobot was made from silicon wafer fabricated by micro fabrication technology. The mechanical system of the robot was(More)
This paper presented a driving circuit which can output a driving waveform of the piezoelectric element impact-type actuator. The piezoelectric element impact-type actuator generates the rotational movement which is necessary to move the legs of the micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) microrobot. The MEMS microrobot is made from silicon wafers(More)
Although several types of locomotive microrobots have been developed, most of them have difficulty locomoting on uneven surfaces. Thus, we have been focused on microrobots that can locomote using step patterns. We are studying insect-type microrobot systems. The locomotion of the microrobot is generated by rotational movements of the shape memory alloy-type(More)
In this study, the actuator system and an integrated circuit (IC) neural network for a hexapod locomotive microrobot is discussed with the aim of achieving walking motion. Miniature size robots such as insects are a field of interest in robotic studies. However, the realization of such a small robot, especially with micro-mechanisms and an artificial brain,(More)