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1. Extra- and intracellular potentials were recorded from neurons and glia during spreading depression (SD) in cerebral cortex of cats. The glial membrane depolarized during SD and the time course of depolarization was concurrent with the surface DC change of SD. The glial depolarization evoked by 20-Hz repetitive cortical stimulation disappeared during the(More)
Intracellular microelectrodes filled with either Lucifer Yellow CH, a highly florescent dye, or horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were used to electrophysiologically characterize and mark cells in the cerebral cortex of cat. Fifty-eight cells, characterized electrophysiologically as glia, were marked with Lucifer Yellow CH. All were identified as protoplasmic(More)
In order to investigate the role of Na+,K(+)-ATPase in the development of neuronal necrosis following cerebral ischemia, ischemia was induced in gerbils by occluding the common carotid artery unilaterally for 10 min. A time-course analysis revealed that significant reductions of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus were(More)
In this paper, we presented the 4.0, 2.7, 2.5 mm, width, length, height size biomimetics micro robot system which was inspired by insects. The micro robot system was made from silicon wafer fabricated by micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. The mechanical system of the robot was equipped with small size rotary type actuators, link mechanisms(More)
In this paper, we will propose the neural networks integrated circuit (NNIC) which is the driving waveform generator of the 4.0, 2.7, 2.5 mm, width, length, height in size biomimetics microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) microrobot. The microrobot was made from silicon wafer fabricated by micro fabrication technology. The mechanical system of the robot was(More)
This paper presented a driving circuit which can output a driving waveform of the piezoelectric element impact-type actuator. The piezoelectric element impact-type actuator generates the rotational movement which is necessary to move the legs of the micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) microrobot. The MEMS microrobot is made from silicon wafers(More)
Although several types of locomotive microrobots have been developed, most of them have difficulty locomoting on uneven surfaces. Thus, we have been focused on microrobots that can locomote using step patterns. We are studying insect-type microrobot systems. The locomotion of the microrobot is generated by rotational movements of the shape memory alloy-type(More)
This paper studied about gait pattern changing of the constructed quadruped robot system using pulse-type hardware neural networks (P-HNN). We constructed the 20 cm in size prototype quadruped robot system. Quadruped robot system consisted of mechanical components and electrical components. The mechanical components consisted of four legs, body frames and(More)