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Photoageing is the superposition of chronic ultraviolet (UV)-induced damage on intrinsic ageing and accounts for most age-associated changes in skin appearance. It is triggered by receptor-initiated signalling, mitochondrial damage, protein oxidation and telomere-based DNA damage responses. Photodamaged skin displays variable epidermal thickness, dermal(More)
Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the extracellular deposition in the brain of aggregated beta-amyloid peptide, presumed to play a pathogenic role, and by preferential loss of neurons that express the 75-kD neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). Using rat cortical neurons and NIH-3T3 cell line engineered to stably express p75NTR,(More)
E- and P-cadherin are calcium (Ca2+)-dependent cell adhesion molecules important in the morphogenesis and maintenance of skin structure. By use of flow cytometry and specific antibodies, we now show that cultured human melanocytes express E- and P-cadherin on their surfaces, and that these molecules have the same characteristics as reported for other cell(More)
The major differentiated function of melanocytes is the synthesis of melanin, a pigmented heteropolymer that is synthesized in specialized cellular organelles termed melanosomes. Mature melanosomes are transferred to neighboring keratinocytes and are arranged in a supranuclear cap, protecting the DNA against incident ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation. The(More)
p75(NTR), a nerve growth factor co-receptor that has been implicated in apoptosis of neurons, is structurally related to Fas and the receptors for tumor necrosis factor-alpha that display ligand independent assembly into trimers. Using embryonic day 17 fetal rat cortical neurons and p75(NTR)-expressing NIH-3T3 cells, we now show that p75(NTR) exists as a(More)
In this study, we investigated the effects of estradiol on the proliferation of neonatal keratinocytes, the expression of estrogen receptor isoforms, and the signaling mechanisms by which estradiol mediates cell growth. We demonstrate that estradiol binds neonatal keratinocytes with high affinity (Kd=5.2nM) and limited capacity (Bmax of 14.2fmol/mg of(More)
Cancer is a leading cause of death in Americans. We have identified an inducible cancer avoidance mechanism in cells that reduces mutation rate, reduces and delays carcinogenesis after carcinogen exposure, and induces apoptosis and/or senescence of already transformed cells by simultaneously activating multiple overlapping and redundant DNA damage response(More)
Apoptosis plays an important role in eliminating dysfunctional damaged cells. For skin, the best characterized injurious environmental agent is ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Most of the damaging UV irradiation is absorbed in the epidermis and leads to apoptosis of keratinocytes. However, epidermal melanocytes appear to be protected from UV-induced(More)
Work in the past 8 years, particularly in the past 1-2 years, has greatly expanded our understanding of the mechanisms by which ultraviolet irradiation stimulates melanogenesis in the skin. A direct effect of UV photons on DNA results in up-regulation of the gene for tyrosinase, the rate-limiting enzyme in melanin synthesis, as well as an increase in cell(More)