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Exogenous application of beta-amyloid (Abeta(25-35), a fragment of Abeta(1-42)) significantly elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in C6 astroglioma cells, as measured by confocal microscopic analysis of H(2)O(2)-sensitive 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin fluorescence. Subsequent characterization of the signalling pathway revealed that expression of(More)
Left-handed Z-DNA has fascinated biological scientists for decades by its extraordinary structure and potential involvement in biological phenomena. Despite its instability relative to B-DNA, Z-DNA is stabilized in vivo by negative supercoiling. A detailed understanding of Z-DNA formation is, however, still lacking. In this study, we have examined the B-Z(More)
Microbubbles with diameters ranging from a few micrometers to tens of micrometers have garnered significant attention in various applications including food processing, water treatment, enhanced oil recovery, surface cleaning, medical purposes, and material preparation fields with versatile functionalities. A variety of techniques have been developed to(More)
The NFAT family of transcription factors plays pivotal roles in the development and function of the immune system. Their activation process is tightly regulated by calcium-dependent phosphatase calcineurin and has been a target of the immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporin A and FK-506. Although the clinical use of these drugs has dramatically increased the(More)
We applied near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and electroencephalography (EEG) simultaneously on the mouse brain and investigated the hemodynamic response to epileptic episodes under pharmacologically driven seizure. gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) were applied to induce absence and tonic-clonic seizures, respectively. The epileptic(More)
Aspergillus cibarius sp. nov. isolated from meju, a brick of dried fermented soybeans in Korea, is described. The species was also found from black bean, bread and salami in the Netherlands. It is characterized by abundant yellow to reddish brown ascomata and small lenticular ascospores (4.5–5.5 μm) with a wide furrow, low equatorial crests and tuberculate(More)
We have determined the prognostic significance of hypodiploidy (<46 chromosomes) in a large cohort of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated by the Children's Cancer Group. Among 1,880 patients, 110 (5.8%) had hypodiploid karyotypes: 87 had 45 chromosomes, 15 had 33 to 44 chromosomes, none had 29 to 32 chromosomes, and 8 had 24 to 28(More)
Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and(More)
Eurotium strains were isolated from 77 loaves of meju (dried fermented soybeans), in various regions of Korea from 2008 to 2010. Morphological characteristics and DNA sequences of β-tubulin were examined. They were identified as Eurotium amstelodami, E. chevalieri, E. herbariorum, E. repens, E. rubrum, and E. tonophilum. Of these species, E. chevalieri and(More)
Strains of the Aspergillus flavus/oryzae complex are frequently isolated from meju, a fermented soybean product, that is used as the starting material for ganjang (soy sauce) and doenjang (soybean paste) production. In this study, we examined the aflatoxin producing capacity of A. flavus/oryzae strains isolated from meju. 192 strains of A. flavus/oryzae(More)