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Dendritic cell (DC) vaccines targeting only cancer cells have produced limited antitumor activity in most clinical studies. Targeting cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in addition to cancer cells may enhance antitumor effects, since CAFs, the central component of the tumor stroma, directly support tumor growth and contribute to the immunosuppressive(More)
Vaccination with ultraviolet-attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum induced protective immunity against challenge infection in experimental animal models. Our preliminary study on the transcription levels of IFN-gamma and IL-4 in splenic CD4+ T cells revealed that attenuated cercariae elicited predominantly a Th1 response in mice at the early stage,(More)
Many studies have showed that the radiation-attenuated cercariae (RAC) vaccine could induce the high protection of laboratory animals to resist the schistosoma infection by cellular and humoral mechanism. Here, we aimed to identify possible vaccine antigens by using specific IgG2 antibody from RAC-vaccinated pigs or vaccination and challenge pigs. The(More)
A Schistosoma mansoni cercarial antigen preparation (cercarial transformation fluid--SmCTF) was evaluated for detection of anti-schistosome antibodies in human sera in 4 collaborating laboratories. The performance of SmCTF was compared with that of S. mansoni egg antigens (SmSEA) in an indirect enzyme-immunoassay (ELISA) antigen assay, the latter being used(More)
BACKGROUND Schistosomiasis japonica is a major public health problem in the endemic areas of China, the Philippines, and Indonesia. To date, a vaccine has not been developed against this disease but immunization with UV-attenuated cercariae can induce a high level of protective immunity in Landrace/Yorkshire/Duroc crossbred pigs. To compare the efficacy of(More)
BACKGROUND The vaccination of radiation-attenuated Schistosoma japonicum cercariae can induce effective protection in artiodactyl, but the immune events related to protective immunity are not fully understood. To provide a paradigm for a human recombinant antigen vaccine, we have undertaken a vaccination and challenge experiment in pigs, which was(More)
There is an evidence that the Kato-Katz technique lacks sensitivity and may hence be an unsuitable method for the assessment of the 'real infection status' in community with low-intensity infections. In this study, six Kato-Katz thick smears (examination of two stool samples with three thick smears each) were used as the diagnostic 'gold' standard for(More)
Interferon gamma induced GTPase (IGTP) (also named Irgm3) and interferon gamma inducible protein 47 (IRG-47) (also named Irgd) are interferon (IFN)-inducible p47 GTPases that have been shown to regulate host resistance to intracellular pathogens. Little knowledge has been known about the role of p47 GTPases in host responses against extracellular pathogens.(More)
A number of epidemiological and clinical studies have suggested an inverse association between allergy and helminth infection, such as Schistosomiasis. Therefore, we hypothesize that Schistosoma japonicum egg antigens, a type of native antigen, can induce production of CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells with regulatory activity, modulating airway inflammation and(More)
Difficulty in controlling human Schistosoma japonicum infection is partly attributed to the presence of non-human definitive hosts. Water buffaloes are a major reservoir for transmission of S. japonicum to humans in China. However, in the Philippines, reports based on microscopic examination of buffalo stool identified a low prevalence of S. japonicum, and(More)