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Hebb's rule (1949) states that learning and memory are based on modifications of synaptic strength among neurons that are simultaneously active. This implies that enhanced synaptic coincidence detection would lead to better learning and memory. If the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor, a synaptic coincidence detector, acts as a graded switch for memory(More)
Cortical plasticity is thought to be important for the establishment, consolidation, and retrieval of permanent memory. Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a cellular mechanism of learning and memory, requires the activation of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. In particular, it has been suggested that NR2A-containing NMDA receptors are(More)
Synaptic plasticity is a key mechanism for chronic pain. It occurs at different levels of the central nervous system, including spinal cord and cortex. Studies have mainly focused on signaling proteins that trigger these plastic changes, whereas few have addressed the maintenance of plastic changes related to chronic pain. We found that protein kinase M(More)
Two forms of activity-dependent long-term depression (LTD) in the CNS, as defined by their sensitivity to the blockade of NMDA receptors, are thought to be important in learning, memory, and development. Here, we report that NMDA receptor-independent LTD is the major form of long-term plasticity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Both L-type(More)
The Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV/Gr (CaMKIV/Gr) is a key effector of neuronal Ca(2+) signaling; its function was analyzed by targeted gene disruption in mice. CaMKIV/Gr-deficient mice exhibited impaired neuronal cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and Ca(2+)/CREB-dependent gene expression. They were also(More)
Glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, activates three different receptors that directly gate ion channels, namely receptors for AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl isoxozole propionic acid), NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate), and kainate, a structural analogue of glutamate. The contribution of AMPA and NMDA receptors to(More)
The ability to remember potential dangers in an environment is necessary to the survival of animals and humans. The cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) is a key transcription factor in synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. We have found that in CaMKIV(-/-) mice--which are deficient in a component of the calcium calmodulin-dependent(More)
Millions of people regularly obtain insufficient sleep. Given the effect of sleep deprivation on our lives, understanding the cellular and molecular pathways affected by sleep deprivation is clearly of social and clinical importance. One of the major effects of sleep deprivation on the brain is to produce memory deficits in learning models that are(More)
Spinophilin, a protein that interacts with actin and protein phosphatase-1, is highly enriched in dendritic spines. Here, through the use of spinophilin knockout mice, we provide evidence that spinophilin modulates both glutamatergic synaptic transmission and dendritic morphology. The ability of protein phosphatase-1 to regulate the activity of(More)
Investigation of the basic mechanisms of chronic pain not only provides insights into how the brain processes and modulates sensory information but also provides the basis for designing novel treatments for currently intractable clinical conditions. Human brain imaging studies have revealed new roles of cortical neuronal networks in chronic pain, including(More)