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Bacterial pathogens frequently use protein secretion to mediate interactions with their hosts. Here we found that a virulence locus (HSI-I) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes a protein secretion apparatus. The apparatus assembled in discrete subcellular locations and exported Hcp1, a hexameric protein that forms rings with a 40 angstrom internal diameter.(More)
We have shown previously that process-bearing GFAP+ astrocytes freshly isolated from rat hippocampus CA1 and CA3 regions are heterogeneous in ion channel expression and K(+) uptake capabilities, such that two distinct populations of astrocytes can be described (Zhou and Kimelberg, 2000). In the present study, we report that glutamate transporter (GT)(More)
Targeted gene silencing by RNAi requires the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), whose core component is the protein Argonaute (Ago) bound to a microRNA (miRNA) or an siRNA. In humans, Ago2 is loaded with miRNAs by the action of a specialized assembly called the RISC-loading complex (RLC), comprising the proteins Ago2, Dicer, and TRBP. Here we show that(More)
The eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) plays an important role in translation initiation, acting as a docking site for several eIFs that assemble on the 40S ribosomal subunit. Here, we use mass spectrometry to probe the subunit interactions within the human eIF3 complex. Our results show that the 13-subunit complex can be maintained intact in the gas(More)
Electrophysiologically complex glial cells have been widely identified from different regions of the central nervous system and constitute a dominant glial type in juvenile mice or rats. As these cells express several types of ion channels and neurotransmitter channels that were thought to be only present in neurons, this glial cell type has attracted(More)
We have recently described a subgroup of isolated glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive (GFAP+) hippocampal astrocytes that predominantly express outwardly rectifying currents (which we term "ORAs" for outwardly rectifying astrocytes), which are similar to the currents already described for hippocampal GFAP- "complex glia." We now report that(More)
Whole-cell patch clamp recording has been successfully used in identifying the voltage-dependent gating and conductance properties of ion channels in a variety of cells. However, this powerful technique is of limited value in studying low membrane resistance cells, such as astrocytes in situ, because of the inability to control or accurately measure the(More)
The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) system is an adaptive immune system in prokaryotes. Interference complexes encoded by CRISPR-associated (cas) genes utilize small RNAs for homology-directed detection and subsequent degradation of invading genetic elements, and they have been classified into three main types (I-III). Type III(More)
We have recently reported that most of NG2 glycoprotein expressing glial cells, or NG2 glia, in rat hippocampus persistently express sodium channel currents (I(Na)) during development, but little is known about its function. We report here that hippocampal NG2 glia recorded in either acute slices or freshly isolated preparations from postnatal days (P) 7-21(More)
Expression of a linear current-voltage (I-V) relationship (passive) K(+) membrane conductance is a hallmark of mature hippocampal astrocytes. However, the molecular identifications of the K(+) channels underlying this passive conductance remain unknown. We provide the following evidence supporting significant contribution of the two-pore domain K(+) channel(More)