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Nuclear movement relative to cell bodies is a fundamental process during certain aspects of mammalian retinal development. During the generation of photoreceptor cells in the cell division cycle, the nuclei of progenitors oscillate between the apical and basal surfaces of the neuroblastic layer (NBL). This process is termed interkinetic nuclear migration(More)
The eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) plays an important role in translation initiation, acting as a docking site for several eIFs that assemble on the 40S ribosomal subunit. Here, we use mass spectrometry to probe the subunit interactions within the human eIF3 complex. Our results show that the 13-subunit complex can be maintained intact in the gas(More)
The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) system is an adaptive immune system in prokaryotes. Interference complexes encoded by CRISPR-associated (cas) genes utilize small RNAs for homology-directed detection and subsequent degradation of invading genetic elements, and they have been classified into three main types (I-III). Type III(More)
Targeted gene silencing by RNAi requires the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), whose core component is the protein Argonaute (Ago) bound to a microRNA (miRNA) or an siRNA. In humans, Ago2 is loaded with miRNAs by the action of a specialized assembly called the RISC-loading complex (RLC), comprising the proteins Ago2, Dicer, and TRBP. Here we show that(More)
F-type ATPases are highly conserved enzymes used primarily for the synthesis of ATP. Here we apply mass spectrometry to the F1FO-ATPase, isolated from spinach chloroplasts, and uncover multiple modifications in soluble and membrane subunits. Mass spectra of the intact ATPase define a stable lipid 'plug' in the FO complex and reveal the stoichiometry of(More)
The ability of electrospray to propel large viruses into a mass spectrometer is established and is rationalized by analogy to the atmospheric transmission of the common cold. Much less clear is the fate of membrane-embedded molecular machines in the gas phase. Here we show that rotary adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases)/synthases from Thermus thermophilus(More)
Protein synthesis in mammalian cells requires initiation factor eIF3, an approximately 800-kDa protein complex that plays a central role in binding of initiator methionyl-tRNA and mRNA to the 40 S ribosomal subunit to form the 48 S initiation complex. The eIF3 complex also prevents premature association of the 40 and 60 S ribosomal subunits and interacts(More)
We describe a general mass spectrometry approach to determine subunit stoichiometry and lipid binding in intact membrane protein complexes. By exploring conditions for preserving interactions during transmission into the gas phase and for optimally stripping away detergent, by subjecting the complex to multiple collisions, we released the intact complex(More)
Chromosomal DNA replication is strictly regulated through a sequence of steps that involve many macromolecular protein complexes. One of these is the GINS complex, which is required for initiation and elongation phases in eukaryotic DNA replication. The GINS complex consists of four paralogous subunits. At the G1/S transition, GINS is recruited to the(More)
The first step of nitrogen assimilation in higher plants, the energy-driven incorporation of ammonia into glutamate, is catalyzed by glutamine synthetase. This central process yields the readily metabolizable glutamine, which in turn is at the basis of all subsequent biosynthesis of nitrogenous compounds. The essential role performed by glutamine synthetase(More)