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Bacterial pathogens frequently use protein secretion to mediate interactions with their hosts. Here we found that a virulence locus (HSI-I) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes a protein secretion apparatus. The apparatus assembled in discrete subcellular locations and exported Hcp1, a hexameric protein that forms rings with a 40 angstrom internal diameter.(More)
Since the 1980s, immigrant children and children of immigrant parentage have become the fastest growing and the most extraordinarily diverse segment of America’s child population. Until the recent past, however, scholarly attention has focused on adult immigrants to the neglect of their offspring, creating a profound gap between the strategic importance of(More)
Stimulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by ligand(s) leads to activation of signaling molecules including Stat1 and Stat3, two members of the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) protein family. Activation of Stat1 and Stat3 was constitutive in transformed squamous epithelial cells, which produce elevated levels of(More)
The PAPI project has defined and implemented a crossplatform interface to the hardware counters available on most modern microprocessors. The interface has gained widespread use and acceptance from hardware vendors, users, and tool developers. This paper reports on experiences with the community-based open-source effort to define the PAPI specification and(More)
Nuclear movement relative to cell bodies is a fundamental process during certain aspects of mammalian retinal development. During the generation of photoreceptor cells in the cell division cycle, the nuclei of progenitors oscillate between the apical and basal surfaces of the neuroblastic layer (NBL). This process is termed interkinetic nuclear migration(More)
PURPOSE Senescent Ccl2(-/-) mice are reported to develop cardinal features of human age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Loss-of-function single-nucleotide polymorphisms within CX3CR1 are also found to be associated with AMD. The authors generated Ccl2(-/-)/Cx3cr1(-/-) mice to establish a more characteristic and reproducible AMD model. METHODS Single(More)
In selecting a method to produce a recombinant protein, a researcher is faced with a bewildering array of choices as to where to start. To facilitate decision-making, we describe a consensus 'what to try first' strategy based on our collective analysis of the expression and purification of over 10,000 different proteins. This review presents methods that(More)
Messenger RNA (mRNA) for enzymes involved in adrenal steroid biosynthesis are expressed in the brain, and the coded enzymes have been shown to be active. The expression of mRNA for the cytochrome P-450 enzyme aldosterone synthase, crucial for the final step in the synthesis of aldosterone and the synthesis of aldosterone was studied in several anatomic(More)
BACKGROUND The stress hormone corticosterone has the ability both to enhance and suppress synaptic plasticity and learning and memory processes. However, until today there is very little known about the molecular mechanism that underlies the bidirectional effects of stress and corticosteroid hormones on synaptic efficacy and learning and memory processes.(More)