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Bacterial pathogens frequently use protein secretion to mediate interactions with their hosts. Here we found that a virulence locus (HSI-I) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes a protein secretion apparatus. The apparatus assembled in discrete subcellular locations and exported Hcp1, a hexameric protein that forms rings with a 40 angstrom internal diameter.(More)
Since the 1980s, immigrant children and children of immigrant parentage have become the fastest growing and the most extraordinarily diverse segment of America’s child population. Until the recent past, however, scholarly attention has focused on adult immigrants to the neglect of their offspring, creating a profound gap between the strategic importance of(More)
Glia show marked heterogeneity in terms of electrophysiology in the developing brain, and two major types can be identified based on GFAP or NG2 expression. However, it remains to be determined if such an electrophysiological diversity holds for the adult brain and how GFAP and NG2 lineage glia are associated with different electrophysiological phenotypes(More)
The PAPI project has defined and implemented a crossplatform interface to the hardware counters available on most modern microprocessors. The interface has gained widespread use and acceptance from hardware vendors, users, and tool developers. This paper reports on experiences with the community-based open-source effort to define the PAPI specification and(More)
Nuclear movement relative to cell bodies is a fundamental process during certain aspects of mammalian retinal development. During the generation of photoreceptor cells in the cell division cycle, the nuclei of progenitors oscillate between the apical and basal surfaces of the neuroblastic layer (NBL). This process is termed interkinetic nuclear migration(More)
Expression of a linear current-voltage (I-V) relationship (passive) K(+) membrane conductance is a hallmark of mature hippocampal astrocytes. However, the molecular identifications of the K(+) channels underlying this passive conductance remain unknown. We provide the following evidence supporting significant contribution of the two-pore domain K(+) channel(More)
NOTE: In the version of this Review initially published, an author (B. Martin Hallberg) was left off of the author list. This information has been added to the HTML and PDF versions of the Review.In selecting a method to produce a recombinant protein, a researcher is faced with a bewildering array of choices as to where to start. To facilitate(More)
PURPOSE Senescent Ccl2(-/-) mice are reported to develop cardinal features of human age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Loss-of-function single-nucleotide polymorphisms within CX3CR1 are also found to be associated with AMD. The authors generated Ccl2(-/-)/Cx3cr1(-/-) mice to establish a more characteristic and reproducible AMD model. METHODS Single(More)
Gap junction communication between astrocytes is prevalent and has been proposed to be involved in several astrocyte functions. One such proposal involves gap junctions in potassium spatial buffering. However, little is known about the developmental time course of gap junction coupling and how much the syncytium affects whole cell measurements of ion(More)