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The current studies were designed to evaluate whether incentive motivation for palatable food is altered after manipulations of opioid, GABAergic, and dopaminergic transmission within the nucleus accumbens. A progressive ratio schedule was used to measure lever-pressing for sugar pellets after microinfusion of drugs into the nucleus accumbens in(More)
Acute pharmacological blockade of central histamine H3 receptors (H3Rs) enhances arousal/attention in rodents. However, there is little information available for other behavioral domains or for repeated administration using selective compounds. ABT-239 [4-(2-{2-[(2R)-2-methylpyrrolidinyl]ethyl}-benzofuran-5-yl)benzonitrile] exemplifies such a selective,(More)
A novel gene named NYGGF4, which was expressed at a higher level in obese subjects, was isolated and characterized. It is a 1527-bp cDNA, containing 753 nucleotides of an ORF (open reading frame) predicting 250 amino acids with a molecular mass of 28.27 kDa. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed NYGGF4 has a phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain. Northern(More)
Gene expression data from microarrays are being applied to predict preclinical and clinical endpoints, but the reliability of these predictions has not been established. In the MAQC-II project, 36 independent teams analyzed six microarray data sets to generate predictive models for classifying a sample with respect to one of 13 endpoints indicative of lung(More)
BACKGROUND Many surveys conducted in recent years reported the increasing trend of HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM), but limited data exists on HIV incidence by cohort study in China. METHODS A 6-month prospective cohort study was conducted. A total of 397 MSM found HIV seronegative at baseline study were followed-up for 6 months(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Ischemic postconditioning (Postcond) is defined as a series of intermittent interruptions of blood flow in the early phase of reperfusion that mechanically alters the hydrodynamics of reperfusion. A recent study showed that Postcond reduced infarct size in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, little is known about the(More)
Abiotic stresses are critical delimiters for the increased productivity and cultivation expansion of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), a root crop with worldwide importance. The increased production of glycine betaine (GB) improves plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses without strong phenotypic changes, providing a feasible approach to improve stable(More)
To delay evolution of pest resistance to transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), the "pyramid" strategy uses plants that produce two or more toxins that kill the same pest. In the United States, this strategy has been adopted widely, with two-toxin Bt cotton replacing one-toxin Bt cotton. Although two-toxin plants(More)
To construct a multicast tree is the basis of multicast data transmission. The prime problem concerning the construction of a shared multicast tree is to determine the position of the root of the shared tree, which is the center selection problem. The selection of the center directly affects the structure of the tree, and affects the performance of(More)
The potent sphingolipid metabolite sphingosine 1-phosphate is produced by phosphorylation of sphingosine catalyzed by sphingosine kinase (SphK) types 1 and 2. In contrast to pro-survival SphK1, the putative BH3-only protein SphK2 inhibits cell growth and enhances apoptosis. Here we show that SphK2 catalytic activity also contributes to its ability to induce(More)