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Endotoxin, a constituent of Gram-negative bacteria, stimulates macrophages to release large quantities of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), which can precipitate tissue injury and lethal shock (endotoxemia). Antagonists of TNF and IL-1 have shown limited efficacy in clinical trials, possibly because these cytokines are early mediators in(More)
Vertebrates achieve internal homeostasis during infection or injury by balancing the activities of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways. Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), produced by all gram-negative bacteria, activates macrophages to release cytokines that are potentially lethal. The central nervous system regulates systemic inflammatory responses(More)
The role of the Arabidopsis homeobox gene, GLABRA 2 (GL2), in the development of the root epidermis has been investigated. The wild-type epidermis is composed of two cell types, root-hair cells and hairless cells, which are located at distinct positions within the root, implying that positional cues control cell-type differentiation. During the development(More)
Mice homozygous for a targeted mutation of the Hoxa-2 (Hox 1.11) gene are born with cleft palates and die within 24 hr of birth. Analysis of stained skeletons revealed that homozygous mutant animals contained multiple cranial skeletal defects, including a duplication of the ossification centers of the bones of the middle ear. Histological analysis suggested(More)
IL-17 is a newly described, T cell-derived cytokine with ill-defined physiologic properties. As such, we examined the release of proinflammatory mediators by human macrophages in response to recombinant human (rh) IL-17. IL-1beta and TNF-alpha expression and synthesis were up-regulated by rhIL-17 in a dose (ED50 was 50 +/- 9 ng/ml)- and time-dependent(More)
It has been previously noted that mixed communities typically produce more power in microbial fuel cells than pure cultures. If true, this has important implications for the design of microbial fuel cells and for studying the process of electron transfer on anode biofilms. To further evaluate this, Geobacter sulfurreducens was grown with acetate as fuel in(More)
Using an in vitro randomization and functional selection procedure, we have identified three novel classes of exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs) recognized by human SF2/ASF, SRp40, and SRp55, respectively. These ESEs are functional in splicing and are highly specific. For SF2/ASF and SRp55, in most cases, only the cognate SR protein can efficiently recognize(More)
We have previously demonstrated that PPAR gamma stimulates the terminal differentiation of adipocyte precursors when activated by synthetic ligands, such as the antidiabetic thiazolidinedione (TZD) drugs. We show here that PPAR gamma is expressed at significant levels in human primary and metastatic breast adenocarcinomas. Ligand activation of this receptor(More)
Vertebrates and invertebrates initiate a series of defence mechanisms following infection by Gram-negative bacteria by sensing the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of the cell wall of the invading pathogen. In humans, monocytes and macrophages respond to LPS by inducing the expression of cytokines, cell-adhesion proteins, and enzymes(More)
Fourth-generation (4G) systems are expected to support data rates of the order of 100 Mb/s in the outdoor environment and 1 Gb/s in the indoor/stationary environment. In order to support such large payloads, the radio physical layer must employ receiver algorithms that provide a significant increase in spectrum efficiency (and, hence, capacity) over current(More)