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Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of adherent epithelial cells to a migratory mesenchymal state has been implicated in tumor metastasis in preclinical models. To investigate its role in human cancer, we characterized EMT in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from breast cancer patients. Rare primary tumor cells simultaneously expressed mesenchymal and(More)
Circulating tumor cell clusters (CTC clusters) are present in the blood of patients with cancer but their contribution to metastasis is not well defined. Using mouse models with tagged mammary tumors, we demonstrate that CTC clusters arise from oligoclonal tumor cell groupings and not from intravascular aggregation events. Although rare in the circulation(More)
Rare circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are present in the blood of patients with metastatic epithelial cancers but have been difficult to measure routinely. We report a quantitative automated imaging system for analysis of prostate CTCs, taking advantage of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a unique prostate tumor-associated marker. The specificity of PSA(More)
Plants encode a distinct set of polygalacturonase inhibitory proteins (PGIPs) that function to inhibit polygalacturonase enzymes produced by soft-rot fungal pathogens. We characterized two PGIP-encoding genes (Bnpgip1 and Bnpgip2) from Brassica napus DH12075 (a double-haploid line derived from a cross between 'Crésor' and 'Westar'). The two proteins(More)
Rare circulating tumor cells (CTCs) present in the bloodstream of patients with cancer provide a potentially accessible source for detection, characterization, and monitoring of nonhematological cancers. We previously demonstrated the effectiveness of a microfluidic device, the CTC-Chip, in capturing these epithelial cell adhesion molecule(More)
Three anthocyanin regulatory genes of maize (Zea mays; Lc, B-Peru, and C1) were introduced into alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in a strategy designed to stimulate the flavonoid pathway and alter the composition of flavonoids produced in forage. Lc constructs included a full-length gene and a gene with a shortened 5'-untranslated region. Lc RNA was strongly(More)
To better understand telomere biology in budding yeast, we have performed systematic suppressor/enhancer analyses on yeast strains containing a point mutation in the essential telomere capping gene CDC13 (cdc13-1) or containing a null mutation in the DNA damage response and telomere capping gene YKU70 (yku70Δ). We performed Quantitative Fitness Analysis(More)
The Hippo signalling pathway regulates cellular proliferation and survival, thus has profound effects on normal cell fate and tumorigenesis. The pivotal effector of this pathway is YAP (yes-associated protein), a transcriptional co-activator amplified in mouse and human cancers, where it promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and malignant(More)
Colon cancers frequently harbor KRAS mutations, yet only a subset of KRAS mutant colon cancer cell lines are dependent upon KRAS signaling for survival. In a screen for kinases that promote survival of KRAS-dependent colon cancer cells, we found that the TAK1 kinase (MAP3K7) is required for tumor cell viability. The induction of apoptosis by RNAi-mediated(More)
A novel Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, agar-hydrolysing bacterium, designated YM01(T), was isolated from seawater samples collected from the Yellow Sea (coastal region of Qingdao, PR China). Cells were rod-shaped, peritrichously flagellated and formed long chains end-to-end. The isolate had an absolute requirement for Na(+) ions, but not seawater, for(More)