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In the developing spinal cord, early progenitor cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage are induced in the motor neuron progenitor (pMN) domain of the ventral neuroepithelium by the ventral midline signal Sonic hedgehog (Shh). The ventral generation of oligodendrocytes requires Nkx6-regulated expression of the bHLH gene Olig2 in this domain. In the absence of(More)
Serotonergic (5-HT) neurons in the brainstem modulate a wide range of physiological processes and behaviors. Two transcription factor genes, Pet-1 and Nkx2.2, are necessary but not sufficient to specify the 5-HT transmitter phenotype. Here we show that the Lim class homeobox gene Lmx1b is required for proper formation of the entire 5-HT system in the(More)
The formation of mammalian secondary palate requires a series of developmental events such as growth, elevation, and fusion. Despite recent advances in the field of palate development, the process of palate elevation remains poorly understood. The current consensus on palate elevation is that the distal end of the vertical palatal shelf corresponds to the(More)
PURPOSE Several epidemiologic studies have evaluated the association between statins and lung cancer risk, whereas randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on cardiovascular outcomes provide relevant data as a secondary end point. We conducted a meta-analysis of all relevant studies to examine this association. METHODS A systematic literature search up to(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated that oligodendrocyte progenitor (OLP) cells are induced from the ventral neural tube by the ventral midline signal, Sonic hedgehog (Shh). In this study, we investigated the role of Gli2 signal transducer in Shh induction of oligodendrocytes by studying oligodendrocyte development in Gli2-null mutants. In the absence of Gli2,(More)
In the developing spinal cord, early oligodendrocyte progenitor cells are induced from the ventral neural tube by the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signal. Previous studies suggested that the Gli3 zinc finger transcription factor is an important signal transducer of Shh signaling during animal development. Here, we demonstrated that Gli3 plays a non-essential role(More)
During early neural development, the Nkx6.1 homeodomain neural progenitor gene is specifically expressed in the ventral neural tube, and its activity is required for motoneuron generation in the spinal cord. We report that Nkx6.1 also controls oligodendrocyte development in the developing spinal cord, possibly by regulating Olig gene expression in the(More)
In this paper, a target tracking controller based on spiking neural network is proposed for autonomous robots. This controller encodes the preprocessed environmental and target information provided by CCD cameras, encoders and ultrasonic sensors into spike trains, which are integrated by a three-layer spiking neural network (SNN). The outputs of SNN are(More)
Oral sex is widely used in human foreplay, but rarely documented in other animals. Fellatio has been recorded in bonobos Pan paniscus, but even then functions largely as play behaviour among juvenile males. The short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx exhibits resource defence polygyny and one sexually active male often roosts with groups of females in tents(More)
H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv protein-protein interaction (PPI) data are essential for understanding the infection mechanism of the formidable pathogen M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Computational prediction is an important strategy to fill the gap in experimental H. sapiens-M. tuberculosis H37Rv PPI data. Homology-based prediction is frequently used in(More)