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Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is one of the key features of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), and IUGR can be mediated by impaired placentation. Insulin-like growth factors (IGF) regulate placentation due to stimulatory effects on extravillous trophoblasts, which are highly motile and invasive. Previous studies demonstrated that extravillous(More)
The reactivation of nerve agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by oxime is the most important step in the treatment of nerve agent poisoning. Since the evaluation of nerve agent antidotes cannot be conducted in humans, results from animal experiments are extrapolated to humans. Guinea pig is one of the animal models that is frequently used for(More)
The toxicity of organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents is manifested through irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) at the cholinergic synapses, which stops nerve signal transmission, resulting in a cholinergic crisis and eventually death of the poisoned person. Oxime compounds used in nerve agent antidote regimen reactivate nerve(More)
Non-human primates are valuable animal models that are used for the evaluation of nerve agent toxicity as well as antidotes and results from animal experiments are extrapolated to humans. It has been demonstrated that the efficacy of an oxime primarily depends on its ability to reactivate nerve agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). If the in vitro(More)
Primary trophoblasts, placental explants, and cell line cultures are commonly used to investigate placental development, physiology, and pathology, particularly in relation to pregnancy outcomes. Organotypic slice cultures are increasingly used in other systems because they maintain the normal three-dimensional tissue architecture and have all cell types(More)
Effects of Fe-chlorophyllin on the growth of wheat root were investigated in this study. We found that Fe-chlorophyllin can promote root growth. The production of nitric oxide in wheat root was detected using DAF-2DA fluorescent emission. The intensity of fluorescent in the presence of 0.1 mg/L Fe-chlorophyllin was near to that observed with the positive(More)
In this study, we employed site-directed mutagenesis to understand the role of amino acids in the gorge in oxime-induced reactivation of nerve agent-inhibited human (Hu) acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents studied included GA (tabun), GB (sarin), GF (cyclosarin), VX, and VR. The kinetics of reactivation were examined using(More)
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