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Cancers arise owing to mutations in a subset of genes that confer growth advantage. The availability of the human genome sequence led us to propose that systematic resequencing of cancer genomes for mutations would lead to the discovery of many additional cancer genes. Here we report more than 1,000 somatic mutations found in 274 megabases (Mb) of DNA(More)
BACKGROUND The International Metastatic Renal-Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium model offers prognostic information for patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma. We tested the accuracy of the model in an external population and compared it with other prognostic models. METHODS We included patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma who were(More)
In the developing spinal cord, early progenitor cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage are induced in the motor neuron progenitor (pMN) domain of the ventral neuroepithelium by the ventral midline signal Sonic hedgehog (Shh). The ventral generation of oligodendrocytes requires Nkx6-regulated expression of the bHLH gene Olig2 in this domain. In the absence of(More)
In this study, we have investigated the relationship of Olig2+ and Nkx2.2+ oligodendrocyte progenitors (OLPs) by comparing the expression of Olig2 and Nkx2.2 in embryonic chicken and mouse spinal cords before and during the stages of oligodendrogenesis. At the stages of neurogenesis, Olig2 and Nkx2.2 are expressed in adjacent non-overlapping domains of(More)
Serotonergic (5-HT) neurons in the brainstem modulate a wide range of physiological processes and behaviors. Two transcription factor genes, Pet-1 and Nkx2.2, are necessary but not sufficient to specify the 5-HT transmitter phenotype. Here we show that the Lim class homeobox gene Lmx1b is required for proper formation of the entire 5-HT system in the(More)
Fumarate hydratase (FH) mutation causes hereditary type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC2). The main effect of FH mutation is fumarate accumulation. The current paradigm posits that the main consequence of fumarate accumulation is HIF-α stabilization. Paradoxically, FH mutation differs from other HIF-α stabilizing mutations, such as VHL and SDH(More)
This paper is concerned with the design of a robotic fish and its motion control algorithms. A radio-controlled, four-link biomimetic robotic fish is developed using a flexible posterior body and an oscillating foil as a propeller. The swimming speed of the robotic fish is adjusted by modulating joint's oscillating frequency, and its orientation is tuned by(More)
PURPOSE A reliable method for diagnosing parathyroid carcinoma has remained elusive over the years, resulting in its under-recognition and suboptimal therapy. Obtaining an accurate diagnosis has become an even more pressing matter with recent evidence that germline HRPT2 gene mutations are found in patients with apparently sporadic parathyroid carcinoma.(More)
Despite the moderate incidence of papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC), there is a disproportionately limited understanding of its underlying genetic programs. There is no effective therapy for metastatic PRCC, and patients are often excluded from kidney cancer trials. A morphologic classification of PRCC into type 1 and 2 tumors has been recently(More)