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A hexanucleotide repeat expansion (HRE), (GGGGCC)n, in C9orf72 is the most common genetic cause of the neurodegenerative diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Here we identify a molecular mechanism by which structural polymorphism of the HRE leads to ALS/FTD pathology and defects. The HRE forms DNA and RNA(More)
The availability of human genome sequence has transformed biomedical research over the past decade. However, an equivalent map for the human proteome with direct measurements of proteins and peptides does not exist yet. Here we present a draft map of the human proteome using high-resolution Fourier-transform mass spectrometry. In-depth proteomic profiling(More)
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are a common cause of familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). Elevated LRRK2 kinase activity and neurodegeneration are linked, but the phosphosubstrate that connects LRRK2 kinase activity to neurodegeneration is not known. Here, we show that ribosomal protein s15 is a key pathogenic LRRK2 substrate(More)
The PIK3CA gene is frequently mutated in human cancers. Here we carry out a SILAC-based quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis using isogenic knockin cell lines containing 'driver' oncogenic mutations of PIK3CA to dissect the signalling mechanisms responsible for oncogenic phenotypes induced by mutant PIK3CA. From 8,075 unique phosphopeptides identified, we(More)
The identification of secreted proteins that are differentially expressed between non-neoplastic and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells can provide potential biomarkers of ESCC. We used a SILAC-based quantitative proteomic approach to compare the secretome of ESCC cells with that of non-neoplastic esophageal squamous epithelial cells. Proteins(More)
While phosphotyrosine modification is an established regulatory mechanism in eukaryotes, it is less well characterized in bacteria due to low prevalence. To gain insight into the extent and biological importance of tyrosine phosphorylation in Escherichia coli, we used immunoaffinity-based phosphotyrosine peptide enrichment combined with high resolution mass(More)
OBJECTIVES Although T stage is an important prognostic tool for oral tongue cancer, it fails to define the depth of invasion and true three-dimensional volume of primary tumors. The purpose of this paper is to determine the relations between tumor volume and lymph node metastasis and survival in early oral tongue cancer. METHODS Forty-seven patients with(More)
Various environmental oxidative stresses are sensed by redox-sensitive regulators through cysteine thiol oxidation or modification. A few zinc-containing anti-sigma (ZAS) factors in actinomycetes have been reported to respond sensitively to thiol oxidation, among which RsrA from Streptomyces coelicolor is best characterized. It forms disulfide bonds upon(More)
Normal adult zebrafish can completely regenerate lost myocardium following partial amputation of the ventricle apex. We report that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) significantly impairs this regeneration. Adult male zebrafish were injected with vehicle (control) or TCDD (70ng/g, ip) 1 day prior to partial amputation of the ventricle apex. Gross(More)
Head and neck cancers have never been systematically studied for clinical purposes yet in Korea. This epidemiological survey on head and neck cancer patients was undertaken from January to December 2001 in 79 otorhinolaryngology resident-training hospitals nationwide. The number of head and neck cancer patients was 1,063 cases in the year. The largest(More)