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A hexanucleotide repeat expansion (HRE), (GGGGCC)n, in C9orf72 is the most common genetic cause of the neurodegenerative diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Here we identify a molecular mechanism by which structural polymorphism of the HRE leads to ALS/FTD pathology and defects. The HRE forms DNA and RNA(More)
The purpose of this study was to establish a "normal" range of dimensions of the thyroid gland on routine neck computed tomography in the Korean population and to investigate the possible influence of some physiological factors on the thyroid dimension. Neck computed tomography scans of 100 adults (57 males, 43 females; mean age=55.2 years) were reviewed(More)
The availability of human genome sequence has transformed biomedical research over the past decade. However, an equivalent map for the human proteome with direct measurements of proteins and peptides does not exist yet. Here we present a draft map of the human proteome using high-resolution Fourier-transform mass spectrometry. In-depth proteomic profiling(More)
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection plays a significant role in the development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Expression of miR-21 has a prognostic role in a wide variety of cancers. The upregulation of miR-21 suppresses a number of target genes, including phosphatase tensin homologue (PTEN) and programmed cell death 4(More)
— We investigate the fairness, smoothness, responsiveness, and aggressiveness of TCP and three representative TCP-friendly congestion control protocols: GAIMD, TFRC, and TEAR. The properties are evaluated both analytically and via simulation by studying protocol responses to three network environment changes. The first environment change is the inherent(More)
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are a common cause of familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). Elevated LRRK2 kinase activity and neurodegeneration are linked, but the phosphosubstrate that connects LRRK2 kinase activity to neurodegeneration is not known. Here, we show that ribosomal protein s15 is a key pathogenic LRRK2 substrate(More)
CID has become a routine method for fragmentation of peptides in shotgun proteomics, whereas electron transfer dissociation (ETD) has been described as a preferred method for peptides carrying labile PTMs. Though both of these fragmentation techniques have their obvious advantages, they also have their own drawbacks. By combining data from CID and ETD(More)
Internet radio and television stations require significant bandwidth to support delivery of high quality audio and video streams to a large number of receivers. IP multicast is an appropriate delivery model for these applications. However, widespread deployment of IP multicast on the Internet is unlikely in the near future. An alternative is to build a(More)
BACKGROUND Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an uncommon tumor, constituting approximately 10% of all head and neck tumors. Classically, ACC has been described as a tumor with indolent, but persistent and recurrent, growth and late onset of metastases, leading eventually to death. This study assessed the prognostic factors affecting the clinical outcome in(More)
BACKGROUND Lymph node density (LND) is more useful than the TNM classification in predicting survival after surgery for many cancers. The purpose of this study was to clarify independent prognostic factors for hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPSCC) and broaden the staging system to improve its predictive value. METHODS The present study included(More)