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Agouti-related protein (Agrp) is present in rat and human hypothalamus and is structurally related to agouti protein. Overexpression of either of these proteins results in obesity. However the effect of exogenous Agrp and its in vivo interaction with alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alphaMSH), the likely endogenous melanocortin 3 and 4 receptor (MC3-R(More)
Ghrelin, a stomach-derived hormone, induces adiposity when administered to rodents. Because ghrelin receptor is abundantly expressed in adipose tissue, we investigated the role of ghrelin in adipocyte biology. We observed ghrelin receptor expression in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and adipocytes. Treatment of preadipocytes with ghrelin induced cellular(More)
The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) in the hypothalamus is thought to be important in physiological regulation of food intake. We investigated which hypothalamic areas known to express MC4R are involved in the regulation of feeding by using alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), an endogenous MC4R agonist, and agouti-related peptide (Agrp), an(More)
The melanocortin receptors, melanocortin-3-receptor (MC3-R) and melanocortin-4-receptor (MC4-R), are expressed in many discrete medial hypothalamic nuclei implicated in feeding regulation. The pro-opiomelanocortin product alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), an MC3/4-R agonist, decreases food intake following intracerebroventricular (ICV)(More)
Leptin regulates energy balance. However, knowledge of the critical intracellular transducers of leptin signaling remains incomplete. We found that Rho-kinase 1 (ROCK1) regulates leptin action on body weight homeostasis by activating JAK2, an initial trigger of leptin receptor signaling. Leptin promoted the physical interaction of JAK2 and ROCK1, thereby(More)
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a member of the neuropoietic family of cytokines. CNTF exerts its actions through activation of a receptor complex, which shows similarity of sequence, second messenger systems and distribution to the leptin receptor. Leptin has been demonstrated to exert profound effects on the hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal axis. This(More)
The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4-R) appears to be an important downstream mediator of the action of leptin. We examined to what extent the anorectic effects of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) might be mediated via MC4-R. alpha-Melanocyte stimulating hormone(More)
This Letter reports new results from the MINOS experiment based on a two-year exposure to muon neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI beam. Our data are consistent with quantum-mechanical oscillations of neutrino flavor with mass splitting |Deltam2| = (2.43+/-0.13) x 10(-3) eV2 (68% C.L.) and mixing angle sin2(2theta) > 0.90 (90% C.L.). Our data disfavor two(More)
The hypothalamic melanocortin system is important in the central regulation of food intake and body weight. We have previously demonstrated that intracerebroventricular administration of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), a nonselective MC3 and MC4 receptor agonist, stimulated plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone, and agouti-related protein(More)
Orexin immunoreactive fibres are abundant in the hypothalamus suggesting a neuroendocrine regulatory role. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of orexin A suppressed plasma prolactin in male rats by 71% at 20 min post-injection and 83% at 90 min post-injection (P < 0.005 vs saline at both time points). To investigate whether this effect was through(More)