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Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are important for action potentials. There are seven major isoforms of the pore-forming and gate-bearing α-subunit (Na(V)1) of VGSCs in mammalian neurons, and a given neuron can express more than one isoform. Five of the neuronal isoforms, Na(V)1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.6, and 1.7, are exquisitely sensitive to tetrodotoxin(More)
MuO-conotoxin MrVIB is a blocker of voltage-gated sodium channels, including TTX-sensitive and -resistant subtypes. A comprehensive characterization of this peptide has been hampered by the lack of sufficient synthetic material. Here, we describe the successful chemical synthesis and oxidative folding of MrVIB that has made an investigation of the(More)
Peptide neurotoxins from cone snails continue to supply compounds with therapeutic potential. Although several analgesic conotoxins have already reached human clinical trials, a continuing need exists for the discovery and development of novel non-opioid analgesics, such as subtype-selective sodium channel blockers. Micro-conotoxin KIIIA is representative(More)
Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) consist of a pore-forming α-subunit and regulatory β-subunits. Several families of neuroactive peptides of Conus snails target VGSCs, including μO-conotoxins and μ-conotoxins. Unlike μ-conotoxins and the guanidinium alkaloid saxitoxin (STX), which are pore blockers, μO-conotoxins MrVIA and MrVIB inhibit VGSCs by(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are assembled from two classes of subunits, a pore-bearing α-subunit (NaV 1) and one or two accessory β-subunits (NaV βs). Neurons in mammals can express one or more of seven isoforms of NaV 1 and one or more of four isoforms of NaV β. The peptide μ-conotoxins, like the guanidinium alkaloids(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons normally express transcripts for five isoforms of the α-subunit of voltage-gated sodium channels: NaV 1.1, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8 and 1.9. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) readily blocks all but NaV 1.8 and 1.9, and pharmacological agents that discriminate among the TTX-sensitive NaV 1-isoforms are scarce.(More)
The effects of chronic sodium valproate (VPA) exposure during different developmental periods on synaptic plasticity were studied in the hippocampal CA1 area. Rats were exposed to VPA (300 mg/kg per day, intraperitoneal) over different developmental intervals: (1). prenatal exposure (PR group); (2). from parturition to weaning (PW group); (3). from(More)
The peptides isolated from venoms of predatory marine Conus snails ("conotoxins") are well-known to be highly potent and selective pharmacological agents for voltage-gated ion channels and receptors. We report the discovery of two novel TTX-resistant sodium channel blockers, mu-conotoxins SIIIA and KIIIA, from two species of cone snails. The two toxins were(More)
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is the quintessential ligand of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaVs). Like TTX, mu-conotoxin peptides are pore blockers, and both toxins have helped to define the properties of neurotoxin receptor Site 1 of NaVs. Here, we report unexpected results showing that the recently discovered mu-conotoxin KIIIA and TTX can simultaneously bind to(More)
Prey shifts in carnivorous predators are events that can initiate the accelerated generation of new biodiversity. However, it is seldom possible to reconstruct how the change in prey preference occurred. Here we describe an evolutionary "smoking gun" that illuminates the transition from worm hunting to fish hunting among marine cone snails, resulting in the(More)