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Cul3, a Cullin family scaffold protein, is thought to mediate the assembly of a large number of SCF (Skp1-Cullin1-F-box protein)-like ubiquitin ligase complexes through BTB domain substrate-recruiting adaptors. Cul3 controls early embryonic development in several genetic models through mechanisms not understood. Very few functional substrate/adaptor pairs(More)
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that can pose a serious threat to human health by causing toxoplasmosis. There are no drugs that target the chronic cyst stage of this infection; therefore, development of an effective vaccine would be an important advance. Aspartic proteases play essential roles in the T. gondii lifecycle. The(More)
It is well established that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a pivotal role in brain plasticity-related processes, such as learning, memory and drug addiction. However, changes in expression of BDNF splice variants after acquisition, extinction and reinstatement of cue-elicited morphine seeking behavior have not yet been investigated.(More)
BACKGROUND Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread intracellular parasite, which infects most vertebrate animal hosts and causes zoonotic infection in humans. Vaccine strategy remains a promising method for the prevention and control of toxoplasmosis. T. gondii GRA4 protein has been identified as a potential candidate for vaccine development. In our study, we(More)
Toxoplasmosis, caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, has been a serious clinical and veterinary problem. Effective DNA vaccines against T. gondii can prevent and control the spread of toxoplasmosis, which is important for both human health and the farming industry. The T. gondii 14-3-3 protein has been proved to be(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1 or Flt-1), a tyrosine kinase receptor, is highly expressed in breast cancer tissues, but near absent in normal breast tissue. While VEGFR-1 expression is associated with poor prognosis of women with breast cancer, it is not clear whether it is involved in the aggressiveness of breast cancer. Thus, the(More)
BACKGROUND Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite, infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals including humans. T. gondii expresses five members of the C1 family of cysteine proteases, including cathepsin B-like (TgCPB) and cathepsin L-like (TgCPL) proteins. TgCPB is involved in ROP protein maturation and parasite invasion,(More)
BACKGROUND isoAsp-Gly-Arg (isoDGR) is a derivative of the Asn-Gly-Arg (NGR) motif, which is used as a targeted delivery tool to aminopeptidase N (CD13) positive cells. Recent studies have shown that cyclic isoDGR (CisoDGRC) has a more efficient affinity with α(v)β(3), a type of integrin that overexpresses in tumor cells. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an(More)
BACKGROUND The assembly of the vertebrate neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is initiated when nerve and muscle first contact each other by filopodial processes which are thought to enable close interactions between the synaptic partners and facilitate synaptogenesis. We recently reported that embryonic Xenopus spinal neurons preferentially extended filopodia(More)
BACKGROUND Toxoplasmosis caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a global epidemic parasitic disease. DNA vaccines play an important role in preventing the spread of toxoplasmosis. SAG family genes encoding particular surface proteins of T. gondii are the best candidates of DNA vaccine. As a member of SAG family genes, SAG5(More)