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The causes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a devastating human neurodegenerative disease, are poorly understood, although the protein TDP-43 has been suggested to have a critical role in disease pathogenesis. Here we show that ataxin 2 (ATXN2), a polyglutamine (polyQ) protein mutated in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2, is a potent modifier of TDP-43(More)
The purification, renewal and differentiation of native cardiac progenitors would form a mechanistic underpinning for unravelling steps for cardiac cell lineage formation, and their links to forms of congenital and adult cardiac diseases. Until now there has been little evidence for native cardiac precursor cells in the postnatal heart. Herein, we report(More)
We collected and completely sequenced 28,469 full-length complementary DNA clones from Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare. Through homology searches of publicly available sequence data, we assigned tentative protein functions to 21,596 clones (75.86%). Mapping of the cDNA clones to genomic DNA revealed that there are 19,000 to 20,500 transcription(More)
Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS)/DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a human disorder characterized by a number of phenotypic features including cardiovascular defects. Most VCFS/DGS patients are hemizygous for a 1.5-3.0 Mb region of 22q11. To investigate the etiology of this disorder, we used a cre-loxP strategy to generate mice that are hemizygous for a 1.5 Mb(More)
GATA6 belongs to a family of zinc finger transcription factors that play important roles in transducing nuclear events that regulate cellular differentiation and embryonic morphogenesis in vertebrate species. To examine the function of GATA6 during embryonic development, gene targeting was used to generate GATA6-deficient (GATA6(-/-)) ES cells and mice(More)
Intestinal epithelial stem cell identity and location have been the subject of substantial research. Cells in the +4 niche are slow-cycling and label-retaining, whereas a different stem cell niche located at the crypt base is occupied by crypt base columnar (CBC) cells. CBCs are distinct from +4 cells, and the relationship between them is unknown, though(More)
Hop is a small, divergent homeodomain protein that lacks certain conserved residues required for DNA binding. Hop gene expression initiates early in cardiogenesis and continues in cardiomyocytes throughout embryonic and postnatal development. Genetic and biochemical data indicate that Hop functions directly downstream of Nkx2-5. Inactivation of Hop in mice(More)
Recognizing 3D objects in the presence of noise, varying mesh resolution, occlusion and clutter is a very challenging task. This paper presents a novel method named Rotational Projection Statistics (RoPS). It has three major modules: local reference frame (LRF) definition, RoPS feature description and 3D object recognition. We propose a novel technique to(More)
YiiP is a membrane transporter that catalyzes Zn2+/H+ exchange across the inner membrane of Escherichia coli. Mammalian homologs of YiiP play critical roles in zinc homeostasis and cell signaling. Here, we report the x-ray structure of YiiP in complex with zinc at 3.8 angstrom resolution. YiiP is a homodimer held together in a parallel orientation through(More)
Patterning of the primitive foregut promotes appropriate organ specification along its anterior-posterior axis. However, the molecular pathways specifying foregut endoderm progenitors are poorly understood. We show here that Wnt2/2b signaling is required to specify lung endoderm progenitors within the anterior foregut. Embryos lacking Wnt2/2b expression(More)