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Ammonia oxidation plays a pivotal role in the cycling and removal of nitrogen in aquatic sediments. Certain bacterial groups and a novel group of archaea, which is affiliated with the novel phylum Thaumarchaeota, can perform this initial nitrification step. We examined the diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing β-Proteobacteria (β-AOB) and(More)
Animal models have provided useful insights into the development and treatment of neuropathic pain. New genetic data from both human studies and transgenic mouse models suggest that specific voltage-gated sodium channel subtypes are associated with specific types of pain and, as such, may be useful analgesic drug targets for a variety of pain types(More)
Teachers' implementation of technology-enhanced student-centered learning environments (SCLEs) will be affected by their beliefs about effective practices. In order for student-centered programs to be used as intended, designers must be aware of the key issues that will shape their implementation and the beliefs teachers hold about these issues. This case(More)
Understanding the development of human brain organization is critical for gaining insight into how the enhancement of cognitive processes is related to the fine-tuning of the brain network. However, the developmental trajectory of the large-scale white matter (WM) network is not fully understood. Here, using graph theory, we examine developmental changes in(More)
1. We have compared the antagonist activity of trinitrophenyl-ATP (TNP-ATP) and diinosine pentaphosphate (Ip(5)I) on recombinant P2X receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes with their actions at native P2X receptors in sensory neurones from dorsal root and nodose ganglia. 2. Slowly-desensitizing responses to alpha,beta-methylene ATP (alpha,beta-meATP)(More)
Using voltage-clamp procedures on Xenopus oocytes, agonist-evoked ionic currents by P2X receptors resulting from the coexpression of P2X(2) and P2X(3) subunits were compared against the agonist responses of homomeric P2X(2) and P2X(3) receptors. With the quantity of P2X(3) mRNA kept constant and quantity of P2X(2) mRNA progressively increased, expressed P2X(More)
PURPOSE By definition idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) is not associated with structural abnormalities on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, recent quantitative studies suggest white and gray matter alterations in IGE. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there are white and/or gray matter structural differences(More)
Primary and metastatic cancers that affect bone are frequently associated with severe and intractable pain. The mechanisms underlying the development of bone cancer pain are largely unknown. In this study, we first demonstrated that a functional upregulation of P2X3 receptors in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons is closely associated with the neuronal(More)