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Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) are responsible for metabolizing the bulk of ethanol consumed as part of the diet and their activities contribute to the rate of ethanol elimination from the blood. They are expressed at highest levels in liver, but at lower levels in many tissues. This pathway probably evolved as(More)
It has been shown that melanoma cells do not express argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) and therefore are unable to synthesize arginine from citrulline. Depleting arginine using pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG20) results in cell death in melanoma but not normal cells. This concept was translated into clinical trial and responses were seen. However,(More)
Arginine deprivation is a promising strategy for treating ASS-negative malignant tumors including melanoma. However, autophagy can potentially counteract the effectiveness of this treatment by acting as a pro-survival pathway. By combining tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) with arginine deprivation using ADI-PEG20 (pegylated(More)
Shp-2, a src homology (SH)2-containing phosphotyrosine phosphatase, appears to be involved in cytoplasmic signaling downstream of a variety of cell surface receptors, although the mechanism is unclear. Here, we have determined a role of Shp-2 in the cytokine circuit for inflammatory and immune responses. Production of interleukin (IL)-6 in response to IL-1(More)
OsMPK3 is a TEY-type rice MAPK belonging to Group C and directly phosphorylates OsbHLH65 in the nucleus. OsMPK3 and OsbHLH65 are induced by biotic stress and defense-related hormones. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are involved in the majority of signaling pathways that regulate plant development and stress tolerance via the phosphorylation of(More)
Loss of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) expression in melanoma makes these tumor cells vulnerable to arginine deprivation. Pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG20) which degrades arginine to citrulline and ammonia has been used clinically and partial responses and stable disease have been noted with minimal toxicity. In order to improve the therapeutic(More)
Long-term exposure to alcohol can have profound effects on the central nervous system including pathophysiological consequences associated with neuroinflammation. Along with astroglia, microglia play an important role in the neuroinflammatory response. Using a SILAC-labeled rat microglial cell line, an expression profile of 2994 proteins was identified in(More)
Cisplatin is an important chemotherapeutic agent in lung cancer treatment. The mechanism of drug resistance to cisplatin is complex and historically has been difficult to overcome. We report here that cisplatin resistant lung cancer cell lines possess high basal levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) when compared to normal cells and their parental cell(More)
Protoplasts have been a useful unicellular system for various molecular biological analyses based on transient expression and single cell analysis using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), widely used as a powerful method in functional genomics. Despite the versatility of these methods, some limits based on low fluorescence intensity of a flow(More)
Plastoglobules (PGs) are thylakoid membrane microdomains within plastids that are known as specialized locations of carotenogenesis. Three rice phytoene synthase proteins (OsPSYs) involved in carotenoid biosynthesis have been identified. Here, the N-terminal 80-amino-acid portion of OsPSY2 (PTp) was demonstrated to be a chloroplast-targeting peptide by(More)
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