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Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons fire in 2 characteristic modes, tonic and phasic, which are thought to modulate distinct aspects of behavior. However, the inability to selectively disrupt these patterns of activity has hampered the precise definition of the function of these modes of signaling. Here, we addressed the role of phasic DA in learning and other(More)
As one of the two main sources of brain dopamine, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is important for several complex functions, including motivation, reward prediction, and contextual learning. Although many studies have identified the potential neural substrate of VTA dopaminergic activity in reward prediction functions during Pavlovian and operant(More)
Although recent studies have extended our understanding of agrin's function during development, its function in the central nervous system (CNS) is not clearly understood. To address this question, zebrafish agrin was identified and characterized. Zebrafish agrin is expressed in the developing CNS and in nonneural structures such as somites and notochord.(More)
Although the role of agrin in the formation of the neuromuscular junction is well established, other functions for agrin have remained elusive. The present study was undertaken to assess the role of agrin in neurite outgrowth mediated by the heparin-binding growth factor basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), which we have shown previously to bind to agrin(More)
Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies in humans have shown that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in long-term memory functioning. In general, the participation of the PFC in long-term memory has been attributed to its role in executive control rather than information storage. Accumulating data from recent animal studies, however, suggest the(More)
BACKGROUND Prolonged febrile seizures (FS) have both acute and long-lasting effects on the developing brain. Because FS are often associated with peripheral infection, we aimed to develop a preclinical model of FS that simulates fever and immune activation in order to facilitate the implementation of targeted therapy after prolonged FS in young children. (More)
PURPOSE To compare the cytological results of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) cytology of thyroid nodules to sonographic findings and determine whether US findings are helpful in the interpretation of cytological results. MATERIALS AND METHODS Among the thyroid nodules that underwent US-FNA cytology, we included the 819 nodules which had(More)
Tobacco stress-induced1 (Tsi1) is an ethylene-responsive-element binding protein/APETALA2-type transcription factor that plays an important role in both biotic and abiotic stress signaling pathways. We show that Tsi1-interacting protein1 (Tsip1), a DnaJ-type Zn finger protein, interacts with Tsi1 in vitro and in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The(More)
Recent studies from our laboratory have begun to elucidate the role of agrin in zebrafish development. One agrin morphant phenotype that results from agrin knockdown is microphthalmia (reduced eye size). To begin to understand the mechanisms underlying the role of agrin in eye development, we have analyzed retina development in agrin morphants. Retinal(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy using core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens and histologic prognostic factors currently used in breast cancer patients. After institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained for this study,(More)