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Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons fire in 2 characteristic modes, tonic and phasic, which are thought to modulate distinct aspects of behavior. However, the inability to selectively disrupt these patterns of activity has hampered the precise definition of the function of these modes of signaling. Here, we addressed the role of phasic DA in learning and other(More)
As one of the two main sources of brain dopamine, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is important for several complex functions, including motivation, reward prediction, and contextual learning. Although many studies have identified the potential neural substrate of VTA dopaminergic activity in reward prediction functions during Pavlovian and operant(More)
This study tested whether pro-alcohol peer influences and prosocial involvement account for increases in drinking during the transition into emerging adulthood and whether these mechanisms differ depending on college attendance and/or moving away from home. The authors used structural equation modeling of prospective data from 825 young men and women. For 4(More)
Russell body gastritis was first defined in 1998, but not many cases have been reported since then. The exact causes and process of this condition are unknown yet; however, considering the reported cases, it has been highly suggested to have correlation with Helicobacter pylori infection. Russell body gastritis has a non-specific clinical presentation of(More)
Animals develop robust learning and long lasting taste aversion memory once they experience a new taste that is followed by visceral discomfort. A large body of literature has supported the hypothesis that basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a critical role in the acquisition and extinction of such conditioned taste aversions (CTA). Despite the evidence that(More)
CONCLUSION Moderate hearing loss in young mice caused decreases in cognition associated with spatial working and recognition memories in 6 months. These results provide evidence for a causal relationship between hearing loss and cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVES Hypothesized mechanisms to connect sensory and cognitive functions include the(More)
PURPOSE To compare the cytological results of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) cytology of thyroid nodules to sonographic findings and determine whether US findings are helpful in the interpretation of cytological results. MATERIALS AND METHODS Among the thyroid nodules that underwent US-FNA cytology, we included the 819 nodules which had(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy using core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens and histologic prognostic factors currently used in breast cancer patients. After institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained for this study,(More)
Although high resolution ultrasonography (US) is helpful in the differentiation of suture granulomas from recurrent thyroid cancer in most cases, a definite diagnosis cannot always be made. We report a case that mimicked recurrent thyroid cancer on US and 2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), but diagnosis of a(More)
OBJECTIVE We wanted to describe the characteristic ultrasonography (US) features and clinical findings for making the diagnosis of subacute granulomatous thyroiditis. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 31 lesions from 27 patients were confirmed as subacute granulomatous thyroiditis by US-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy. We analyzed the ultrasonographic(More)